Chorus against choirs: parasitic technopolitics & twin forms of fabulation



Excerpt selected by the author from the book choirs, contraries, mass

“I try to speak of the metaphor, to say something appropriate or literal about it, to treat it as a theme, but it, as it were, obliges me to – more metaphorically – speak of it in its own way” (Jacques Derrida, free version of a snippet of Le portrait de la métaphore).

If there is any exemplary figuration for the Brazilian plot of the early 2020s, its recurring model – “be it an animal, be it a whole action”[1] – seems to emerge from parasitism. From the field of social thought (Marcos Nobre), economics (Márcio Pochmann), political science (Luiz Eduardo Soares) to art (Nuno Ramos) and literature (Silviano Santiago), at some point during the Bolsonaro government, – as mirrored and organizational images possible to describe it – the figure of the parasite, of the biological relationship between commensal and host.

This text seeks to synthetically examine the scope and correspondences that lend this imagery horizon a fundamental role in viewing and understanding the current historical time. Faced with a scenario of “violence, real and symbolic” as experienced since the 2014 presidential campaign and Dilma Rousseff’s impeachment, and intensified with Bolsonaro’s inauguration, “the unnamable, the impossible to express” was “little by little claiming its rights", as Nuno Ramos underlined in the Magazine Piauí of August 2020.

In this sense, the speculative-analogical transposition of observation into the field of parasitism seems to have offered a representational way of accessing this inexpressible. Through this imagery link, both the density and scope of the authoritarian network embedded in the country's institutions and management are evidenced, as well as the mechanics of operation of the mass remote-guided choirs (digitally inflated) and the political-discursive appropriations (with inversion ideological) — in both cases, characteristic expressions of neo-fascist technopolitics.

Contiguous and antagonistic to this expansive parasitism, it imposes itself, at the same time, especially in the post-impeachment years, the perception of a series of self-dramatizations of the artistic and literary process as twinning, which seem to circumstantiate and confront, in the cultural field, the model parasitic. And this through a repeated, and varied, exercise in duplicated fabulation, and through exposition – not always particularly strident, but critically effective – of distinct forms of coupling composition.

Among these exercises, the focus will initially be on the anatomy (in fable format) of the parasitic plot, carried out by Silviano Santiago in 2020. Next, an attempt is made to understand the concerns and refusals that bring them together, and the different artistic processes that guide and distinguish these twinned forms, fabulations-in-fold and counter-choralities linked to the country's recent historical experience.

There are, in this sense, some different uses of ventriloquization, as in what does she whisper, by Noemi Jaffe, ligia, by Nuno Ramos, Vacancy meat, by Grace Passô. In addition to imagery-polyphonic overlapping operations — such as the conjugation between motet[3] and riot, Lima Barreto and the demonstrations of 2013, in Motet for Lima Barreto, by André Vallias, the project Hateland (2017–2018), by Giselle Beiguelman, the refiguration of Glauber's use of superposition and voice over in the triptych[4] Asphyxia/Commodity/The Ordinary, by Bia Lessa.

As a third path of observation, attention is drawn to some works that also expand their field of realization, intensifying, as an active part of the work, the rumor of the extra frame. This is what Ricardo Aleixo makes explicit directly in his recent poetry and what so many of Nuno Ramos' works with a more overt political dimension in recent years show — from Cassandra e See you here a to the living, Said and done and lost. And this is what Lenora de Barros does, in simultaneous interlocution with the targets by Jasper Johns and São Paulo shooting academies, reusing targets used in an exhibition and video presented in 2017.

Before a more detailed consideration of these singular dynamics of composition-in-folding and antagonization via twinning, it is worth returning, however, to certain relationships between figure and fable from which they seem to emerge. And to the analytical fields in which the image of the parasite gains emphasis, exposure and elucidative potential for a society, such as the Brazilian one, which has been undergoing, in the last decade, a violent and accelerated course of autophagic predatory. Including with regard to the means to understand itself and collectively build a potential horizon of transformation.

It should not be forgotten that, still in 2016, during the period of consideration of the impeachment by the Senate, it would initially be up to Dilma Rousseff, shortly after being removed from the presidency, to suggest a biological analogy whose applicability to the Brazilian historical circumstance seems to have expanded even more in the following years. Evaluating the opening of her removal process as the starting point of a parasitic attack on democratic institutions, the former president would announce: “It is not just an image. It perfectly reflects what a white coup is, a parliamentary coup. It is the attack of the parasite. It doesn't kill democracy today, but if it continues, it ends up killing”.[5]

Even varied and used with varying degrees of scope, brutality and destruction, the parasitic image was, in fact, gaining a particular hermeneutic quality for the intelligibility of recent history and the situation of the country. Both from the point of view of a tactical understanding of the totalitarian machine and the collective perception of growing fascistization that affected institutions, language and behaviors, and was ingrained in everyday life. A figuration that makes the present malaise particularly sensitive, the mismatch between historical experience and an invasive political fabrication and guided by a very strong totalitarian anachrony, with attribution of survival to links and regressive authoritarian agents — however insatiable and manifestly indifferent to the agony of the body social environment that serves as their host.

When dealing with the “new right-wing radicalism”, in 1967, Theodor W. Adorno would observe the frequency with which “convictions and ideologies” reappear “just when they are no longer in fact substantial due to the objective situation”. It would be at that moment, he underlines, that they assume “their demonic character, their truly destructive character”.[6] The analysis by Marcos Nobre, researcher at Cebrap, of the Brazilian context in March 2020, defining Jair Bolsonaro as “basically a political parasite”, would, in a way, go in a similar direction.

Em The virus and the parasite, text published in the newspaper Folha de S. Paul,[7] Marcos Nobre would evaluate, under the impact of the expansion of the Covid-19 pandemic, the administration initiated in Brazil in 2019. He defines it as a combination of, on the one hand, “incompetence and lack of interest in governing” (public services functioning despite the government) and, on the other hand, a “destructive and destructive logic”, a strategy of dismantling (from within) public policies and “the entire institutional order built in the fight against the 1964 dictatorship and in the long work of elaboration and implementation of the 1988 Constitution over three decades”.[8]

The disintegrating strategy would, at the same time, harbor a long-term project of power, including a dreamed attempt to build a new authoritarian regime conceived as a resurrected version of the military dictatorship that ruled the country from 1964 to 1985. Marcos Nobre registers, in this perspective, the strategic aspect of this multiple parasitism and its capillarity in the government and in the Bolsonarist project. Moving from the exercise by delegation of the presidency, from the emptied renaming of programs and projects linked to other administrations, to the deleterious occupation (by displaced military personnel and right-wing activists) of strategic organizational structures, which are reduced to assisting, thus, the very dissolution.

Observing the different analytical fields in which, with variations in emphasis, the parasitic image would be reactivated, in Brazil in the 2020s, indicates its incidence and the illuminating character of the resumption of this biological analogy. Remembering, to use a restricted example, that this image played a crucial role in the analysis of the State, and of the separation between government and social body by Karl Marx,[9] in the study of imperialism and capital accumulation undertaken by Rosa Luxemburg,[10] as well as, at the turn of the XNUMXth to the XNUMXth century, in the exam — see Manoel Bomfim[11] – the relations between colonies and metropolises and their effects and historical developments in Brazil and Latin America. Records of the strong ballast of this analogy to parasitism in the field of social sciences, these are, in the three cases, equally relevant references for understanding its updating in the contemporary context.

After the 2008 financial crisis, reflections such as that of the Polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman, in parasitic capitalism, would return, on a world scale, to this image, underlining, once again, that “the strength of capitalism lies in the extraordinary ingenuity with which it seeks and discovers new host species” and “in the opportunism and speed, worthy of a virus, with that adapts to the idiosyncrasies of its new pastures”.[12] The contemporary search, in Brazil, for a synthesis figure, capable of functioning as an image and fable summary for an ultraliberal political-economic context and with an openly neo-fascist nature, would also suggest to different disciplinary vocabularies the recurrence of this biological inflection.

Alongside Marcos Nobre's assessment of government management, we can recall, in this sense, an article by Márcio Pochmann, in which a similar diagnosis is reinforced, from an economic point of view. The article is titled Brazil, showcase of parasitic rentism and was published on the website Other wordson November 16, 2021.

The starting point, in this case, is the fact that, with the impoverishment of the country and the decomposition of the world of work, “the lives of millions” have been “precarious while the number of billionaires more than doubled”. Incapable of “generating new wealth”, these fortunes would be inflated through the financialization of inherited wealth and “fraud and state budget plunder”. Hence the rigging of the state sector, comments Pochmann, favoring dominant groups and diverting public funds in their direction through “labour and social security reforms” and “mandatory amendments and expropriation of public officials”, among other “modalities of plundering”. ”.[13]

In the realm of the imaginary and cultural practice, relevant comments by Nuno Ramos, Luiz Eduardo Soares and Rodrigo Guimarães Nunes would highlight, respectively, in this rise to power of the Brazilian ultra-right, the dominance of (parasitic) modes of acting by inversion, mimetic expansion and trolling .

In an article published on January 21, 2020, in the newspaper Folha de S. Paul,[14] and motivated by the departure of the playwright and director Roberto Alvim from the position of secretary of culture in the Bolsonaro government, Rodrigo Nunes would deal specifically with the trolling.[15] Describes the usual ultra-right tactic (copied from alt-right[16] North American) to gain massive engagement – ​​controversial agendas and aggressive interactions. But with an obligatory counterpart: a certain “indistinction between seriousness and play”.[17] Alvim would lose his position, Nunes reckons, precisely because of the inefficiency in using this tactical ambiguity in an overly literal personification of Joseph Goebbels. Which would transform a provocation (with carefully selected text, scenery and costumes) into a paroxysmal exposition of the Nazi substratum of the Brazilian ultra-right.

On May 3, 2020, also at Folha de S. Paul, Nuno Ramos would return to thematize these strategies in The Fiscal Island Ball. The title of the article refers directly to the author's birthday party, held on the eve of sanitary isolation. It points, at the same time, however, through the reference to the ball that preceded the fall of the monarchy, to another end — that of the New Republic, in terminal agony since 2016. As Nuno would explain: “There is a unified heritage of the New Republic, by Itamar to Dilma, which we are passively letting raffle, since no one claims in its entirety”. List, points out Nuno, listing, then, part of the social conquests built in the three decades after the civil-military dictatorship: “the SUS, the universalization of education, the stabilization of the currency, the Bolsa Família, the access of minority ethnic groups to Education Superior, the enhancement of the S System, the demarcation of indigenous lands”.[18]

It is, therefore, in a mournful way that he turns to the destructive dimension of Bolsonarism and to the detection of characteristic aspects of its performance: the stridency, the reduced repertoire and a “dysfunctional power of aggression” – which constantly announces and postpones , threats of wider disruption of the democratic order. If the Bolsonarist discursive machine goes in this direction “by the setback, by the drain, by the fire, by making it worse and more violent”, on the other hand, the specular and repetitive character of these opposites would suggest constitutive impotence. “Because they just need to invert”, observes Nuno, “they live from a parasitism by inversion, but still symmetrical, without any creation”.[19]

Luiz Eduardo Soares, in Within the fierce night, a book published in September 2020, would also draw attention to this “sterilization by specular inversion”,[20] for the fact that the meaning added to the objects appropriated by Bolsonarism is limited to the “inverted image of the original”. And this “very poor strategy”, which offers itself as a peculiar aesthetic, strives to restrict and obstruct, with this mimicry, “the space of knowledge, critical argumentation and creation”.[21]

As Victor Klemperer observed, in LTI: language in the Third Reich, regarding the intentional poverty in the appropriation of German by the Nazi jargon and the uses of language in a totalitarian context, it is essentially a question of operating changes in the original meaning of certain expressions (making them work with a new meaning, ideologically readapted), and of simplify everyday language as much as possible Slogans easy to repeat (as in the adaptation of a Nazi motto contained in Slogans such as: “Brazil above all and God above all” etc.), maintaining, in these operations, the clear disposition to discourage thought.

Thus, the most diverse expressions, concepts, and cultural practices are subjected to systematic semantic emptying and deviations – as it happens, in the Brazil of the Bolsonaro government, with the degradation of the theme of slavery, treated as a positive factor by Sérgio Camargo (former president of the Palmares Foundation); with the discussion on violence against women (criminally treating rape as almost a gift and feminists as “bitches”); with the notion of heroism, combined with praise of intolerance, as in praise of torturers; or, still, in the same way as the US ultra-right does with the ideals linked to the defense of freedom of expression, also in Brazil it found itself dismantled and trivialized as an artifice for authoritarian expansions.

If it is a structural inability to produce autonomous projects or content of its own which, as Luiz Eduardo Soares emphasizes, directs Bolsonarism towards the maximum dissemination of instruments that allow it to “parasitize to feed itself”, this opportunism, propagated on a massive scale , would gain, for that very reason, communicational and political strength, sedimenting jargon[22] itself cut ideologically from the lexicon of common use. “New words appear, old words gain a special meaning, there are rearrangements with new words that soon consolidate themselves as stereotypes”,[23] we could also say about Bolsonarist Brazil via Victor Klemperer.

The parasitic topic that emerges in the observations mentioned here (about institutional action, neoliberal economic policy and the discursive strategies of the extreme right) is evidently not the only or decisive axis of these analyses, which follow their own reflective plot. It is not surprising, however, that the reference to parasitism appears in the most diverse fields of observation.

Among the manifestations of hatred compiled by Giselle Beiguelman, in Hateland, for example, references to worms and parasites abound. In the occupation, a novel by Julian Fuks – from Mia Couto’s epigraph –, the host’s mask breaks through (but expanding its use): “[…] He wanted to be conquered, occupied from head to toe, to the point of forgetting who he was. it was before the invasion. An epigraph that functions as a preliminary elucidation of the poetics that would be outlined in the novel: “letting them occupy my writing: an occupied literature is what I can do at this moment”. In a novel like what does she whisper, by Noemi Jaffe, contrasting the past (“pink blanket that does not cover our bodies”) with the memories that “squirm” in it, the protagonist Nadejda Mandelstam unexpectedly and crudely adopts for herself and her husband the analogy: “half-dead branches clinging to parasitic roots, you and me.”

When parasitism is adopted as an image axis, there is something consensual in the perception of opportunism and predatory action that characterize it, a consensus that accompanies the semantic expansion of the expression beyond parasitology. It is not usual to revisit – from within the biological field – the variety of commensal or provider organisms and to scrutinize the biological entanglements through which they interact. We often privilege, in this association, even when dismantling it, the figural typification instead of the minutiae of the fable, which would necessarily include the bloody unfolding and the consequences of the parasitic action on the parasitized organism.


Figure, fable and absorption

This is what happens, on the contrary, in wasp eggs, a fableby Silviano Santiago[24] text released in July 2020, an analogical exercise with figural and fable dimensions based on a text by biologist Stephen Jay Gould and certain scientific curiosities about the wasp gestation process and cruelty in the animal world.

With these clippings from a reliable scientific source, it seems, at first sight, to be reduced almost to zero, there, the fictionalization or the extraphysiological reference to parasitism. A pseudo-reduction of scope that will work, however, in this case, in the opposite direction: as a kind of thriller guided by the exposition of reactive behaviors of prey (including escape attempts) and by the description of the transformations that organisms go through when taken by opportunistic commensals.

In the series of conjuncture analyzes that evoke, in Brazil in the 2020s, parasitism, it would be up to Waste eggs, a fable to capture literarily not only the recurrence of this diagnosis, but to make explicit, at the same time, the effects of a certain strategic agreement between figure and plot and of a hypothesis of a fable fold that is deafly inscribed in it.

In comments on parasitism, such as those highlighted here, the identical choice of biological analogue for the Brazilian plot stands out, its fable development would follow, however, from the disciplinary point of view, a deliberately restricted analytical path. The relational figure is biological, but the plot that develops from it is sociopolitical, economic or communicational. The physiological threads of the primary plot are usually kept in parentheses. For he is not in fact the focus of apprehension. And yes, the parasitic mesh with predatory action on social life. The assumption is, of course, that it will be up to the reader to unravel the threads of this double plot (biological and sociopolitical).

The strategy adopted by Silviano Santiago, in his fable, will be to create, on the contrary, the effect of a rigorous correspondence between figure and fable, intentionally keeping them in the field of natural history. As if the exemplary story were absorbed in its own universe of reference – animal cruelty – and, a fable that is the opposite of a fable, did not even bother to openly exercise its exemplarity.

Absorption, however, confers on the parasites the function of the Aristotelian “beautiful animal”, whose plot suggests the Poetics, should borrow chaining and proportions. The strategy of concordance between image and plot and self-insertion in the biological scenario seem, in this way, to end wasp eggs almost pinboard aside. And if this postpones personal or collective projections on the part of the reader, it intensifies, on the other hand, his engagement with a plot whose developments he is allowed to watch from outside the frame.

The option for the contrast between an apparent silence about the contemporary Brazilian plot (disproved, ironically, by the categorical indication of the brief form used in it) and the meticulous description of painful physiological processes (extracted from Stephen Jay Gould and the natural sciences) would thus produce a bloody (micro)novel of formation, focused on the interaction of wasps and hosts. The exemplary character of the discursive model used (that of the story told via animals), although apparently silent, nevertheless allows the text, even maintaining a strict correspondence between figure and fable, to invade, indirectly, “simultaneously art and reality”. ”.[25]

It must not be forgotten that, as wasp eggs, The piece the rhino, by Ionesco, is also a fable. The diminutive scale of the insects and larvae, Silviano's characters, in no way removes their relational attributes or their elucidative scope. They also relentlessly, but more silently than rhinos, expose totalitarian expansion.

The fable seems to look and not look at the reader. Despite a nod here (“Only humans are able to understand it for their own interest and benefit”), another there (“In the decade that begins, the future host is trying to imitate the escape stratagem of the family caterpillar of Hapalia, even knowing that both imitation and escape are also in vain"), a certain distance is maintained between the reader and the narrator-pinboard. Having defined the “fatal” character of the plot, on the other hand, a certain indetermination remains: “it has no golden closure or moral”. And if there is no escape, as the story of the caterpillar warns, the confrontation persists between, “on the one hand, resistance (of the prey) and, on the other, efficiency (parasitic)”.

A confrontation that points both to Silviano’s anatomy lesson (cut out of Gould and leaked by an off-field named “the beginning decade”), as well as to other twin structures and folding fables whose critical trail is distinguished in art and literature produced in post-impeachment Brazil. Especially as focal areas from which, in the midst of the stridency, the experience of the present is dimensioned – in continuous confrontation with it.


Coralized reification and critical twinning

Considering this set of active coupling experiments, in the contemporary Brazilian context, as a particular way of understanding and artistic formalization, necessarily involves assessing not only the uniqueness of each of these methods, the similarities (or not) of procedures, but also the historical circumstance in which this occurs, of a certain simultaneity of manifestation. That is: if linked to particular artistic and literary trajectories, these active overlaps, resistant to fusion, to closure, also correspond, in different ways, to the imposing politicization of the current time and configure antagonizations directed to an aggressively anti-intellectual and hostile context to any cultural practices with reflective or mobilizing potential.

For in recent years, we have witnessed not only a political effort to restrict activities and funds for the areas of culture, research, heritage, but also degraded appropriations, whenever possible, of the artistic experience. Contrasting with it, to stick to well-known examples, ritualizations thanks to of the practice of performance (such as those of the extreme right activist Sara Winter, for example), aggressive ideologizations of humor (represented as bullying), dissolution of dialogic uses of language (reduced to the monologic of the religious sermon or the automatic repetition of refrains, chants, hashtags e Slogans), disputes in the field of popular demonstrations (such as the aggressive use of country music in boxes at Sapucaí, in 2022, interfering with the listening of samba schools in Rio de Janeiro).

These deliberately degraded cultural appropriations remain within the scope of mimesis by inversion or by trolling. If there are processes of appropriation or reduplication in twinning experiences, in these cases, the reference (artistic, political) is, on the contrary, a matter that interferes, that has a voice. And that does not dissolve in tonal standardization or formal homogenizations. The distinction of its components – coupled, but not amalgamated – inviting, as will be seen, to the internal theatricalization of these figural and/or fable overlapping hypotheses.

What exists is a polyfabulation, the coupling (not the solidification of the collage) of defined, pre-known elements, from various extractions, to other materials or ambiences, according to very specific propositions and procedures. Which isn't saying much. But the articulation – laid bare – of these elements, these structures, and the proposition implicit or explicitly inscribed in the work certainly distinguishes them. Remember the interplay between the overexposed biological plot and the almost invisible plot of the “decade that is beginning” in the very brief and unphatic fable format used by Silviano Santiago.

As in these other twinnings, alongside any personal evidence (a childhood photo of Ricardo Aleixo in extra frame, video recordings of the day of Bia Lessa's mother's death amid film segments of letters to the world) and very particular artistic cuts (of works by Glauber Rocha, Óssip and Nadejda Mandelstam, Marcel Proust, Lima Barreto, Jasper Johns, Tom Jobim, Chico Buarque), there is a strong presence of the world, and the direct, intentional, often uncomfortable, of recent political everyday life (shooting clubs, the bullet lodged in the body, the 2013 demonstrations, the corporate media, the struggle for housing, the art market, hate speech on social networks). And this in particular modes of articulation: images and sounds superimposed by a computer program, in the case of motet polytextual of Vallias; live listening, via headphones, of open TV programming, reproduced scenically with minimal delay, in several performances planned by Nuno Ramos – as in See you here (in which two performers reproduced, in full, Globo's 24-hour schedule); the contrast between, on the one hand, pre-recorded, filmic material, and, on the other, live performances and occupation blocks on Avenida Paulista in letters to the world, by Bia Lessa; the raw montage of violent speeches and verbal intolerance of all kinds (against Cracolândia, against Marielle Franco and against the homeless) performed as a critical sampling by Giselle Beiguelman.

It is not just the appropriations with the intention of lowering the referents that differentiate these twinnings in which nothing fully amalgamates or creates a united order. The opposite of what happens in the obligatory ideological-functional cohesion of certain regressive choralities built through apps and social networks that operate, in turn, in the direction of reification, of the identical, and that profit from the unison of adhesion, of mockery It's from bullying, feeding and feeding, parasitically from the neo-fascist digital machine.

It is no coincidence, moreover, that the name “The Beast” was adopted by Matteo Salvini’s League,[26] from the Italian extreme right, to the device for monitoring (in real time) digital content and forwarding, then to the most popular ones like Slogans and virtual campaigns whose effects should be automatic adherence and mass redistribution through parasitic digital choirs. A similar political machine, with equally wide ramifications via social networks, has been crucial in Brazil in the propagation of anti-democratic content of all kinds, through which blind support is sustained, including the loss of labor rights and social security achievements.

In the opposite direction, in the calculated coupling experiments, there is, in short, among them, medium specificity, common composition method, procedure unification or unison choirs. Even when they assume coral form, different configurations are superimposed on it. If there is convergence, it is because these experiments all work with particular specific means. Not means systemically imposed by the artistic-literary field, but means that are imposed and configured, on the contrary, by the works themselves throughout their realization. And because there are – and not only in Ricardo Aleixo's book mentioned here – active extraframes that are offered for observation and interaction with the other elements that constitute them.

The conjuncture of fascistization, pandemic and unforgivable deaths by the thousands, of militarization, institutional dismantling, of parties-algorithms and slogans and spectacularly mediated threats, in fact, seems to impose parasites and beasts as imaginary-fabular standards. At the same time, however, it was possible to formulate figural and fabled counterpatterns, which self-expose their twinning dynamics and expose this context, sometimes attached as raw material. Like the voiceover bits of the anchors of the National Journal, reassembled by Nuno Ramos in ligia, like the targets thrown away by shooters and shooting clubs and collected by Lenora de Barros, like the bullet that silently inhabits the body in Vacancy meat, by Grace Passô.


the targets

On July 30, 2017, a few months before the opening, in November of the same year, of the exhibition step on the wood, by Lenora de Barros, at Galeria Milan, in São Paulo, a report by Renata Mariz, with the title Number of Brazilians who become shooters to obtain a license explodes in the country recorded: “Never has the Army granted so many licenses for individuals to have access to firearms. Data collected by the agency at the request of The globe show an unprecedented boom from 2016, when 20.575 authorizations were issued, 185% more than the 7.215 of the previous year. With record demand, the trend is upward. In 2017 alone, 14.024 citizens already obtained the endorsement, an average of 2.033 per month or 66 per day”.[27]

The article also offered a comparison perspective, considering data from 2005 to 2017 according to which “the number of people with valid authorization rose 395%”, in that period, going from “14.865 to 73.615”. “Shooting entities and clubs across the country” would also grow, popularizing this sport, as well as the purchase, possession and carrying of weapons, guaranteed to its practitioners and associates, including in the midst of disarmament policies.

It was in this context that the artist began experimenting with worn-out and discarded targets used by shooting academies, collected by her. At the time of the exhibition, Lenora de Barros would comment on her special interest in “used targets” due to the additional load of violence that, in her view, would be contained “in these decomposing figures” after the number of shots received in training. Even more so because, in these cases, they are target figures, “bodies that never lived” and that, however, “died a violent death”.

Another curious element in these target figures, also decisive for their choice as material for experiments by the artist, is the fact that the mouths (leaked by the shots) function there as the central focus of the shooters, which refers to the vast series of mouths and tongues that constitute, as places of language production, fundamental imagery topics in the work of Lenora de Barros. The mouths, focal points for directing shots on these targets, would receive a particular makeover in one of the sections of the exhibition step on the wood. Passed by narrow wires, which act as aerial drawings in the gallery, they evoke, in “Papo Aranha”, both the lines of Fred Sandback, cutting out empty spaces, and the police methods of measuring and deciphering the trajectory of bullets.

The targets would also be fundamental elements in video[28] made at the same time and projected at the Milan Gallery exhibition. At first, they are used there as a false head covering the artist's face, standing at the back of a training room, as if awaiting her own execution. The target body then walks towards the camera, showing, at a certain point, the living figure covered by the mask, so that, shortly afterwards, it is targeted by a direct shot in the mouth. At that moment, the usual appearance of the training space is restored, with several moving targets-heads, which remains until the target-mask previously hit comes to the foreground, making its surface covered in bullet marks visible.

The striking character of the video is undoubtedly amplified in a context of violence like the Brazilian one. It also suggests, however, a close dialogue with the history of modern art, and a rereading of the Targets, by Jasper Johns. Often seen above all as baits for attention to the physicality of the pictorial surface, and due to the game operated in them between ways of seeing, between proximity and distance, vision and tangibility, it is usually forgotten, however, in critical approaches of this series, the ironically bloody dimension of your invitation to approach. Especially in Targets which contain painting and figures modeled in plaster, and whose tactile aspect seems to reinforce a demand for proximity.

Because, when placing themselves in front of the target painting, the observers see themselves forcibly thrown into the line of fire, thus actualizing themselves, even if hypothetically, a situation of “exposure and vulnerability”,[29] and the transformation of a place of sight into a risk framework. As a living body in front of the pictorial target, the viewer of Johns' “target paintings” thus becomes the primary target.

The fact that, in the video, Lenora positions herself in the line of fire and brings her composite figure of artist-target closer to the observer's field of vision, contrary to what happens in Jasper Johns' Targets, suddenly puts him not in the place of target, but in the equally uncomfortable position of possible shooter, of executioner. Addressing him openly, and in Close, the video introduces him into the scene, destabilizes the observation site, and thus invites him, as in an imaginary (but perceptible) reverse shot, to see the frame of execution from the perspective of the shooter. And, in this passage from observer to executor, he is invited to reframe, in the middle of the risk zone, the response to what he sees.

This movement highlights not only the uneasiness with regard to the position of observer or target, but other vulnerabilities as well. Because the artist's body exposure to risk - instead of the impersonality of the two-dimensional targets – it signals, simultaneously, to other potential victims of real or symbolic violence, accentuated in the country in the last decades – the woman (against whom the violence escalated in Brazil) and the cultural workers, equally preferred object of cyclical hate and smear campaigns by far-right movements. This to name just two possibilities.


the interposed voice

The exposure of Lenora de Barros's face and body under the target mask creates, therefore, a ventriloquism that is responsible, in large part, for the surprise that the video targets awakens in the observer. Especially at the exact moment of the shot, after the artist had shown herself as a hidden presence, covered by the standard target. Like someone to be executed, we saw her installed right in the crosshairs. And we know that there is not just a silhouette there. We know who the ventriloquist is who lends his body to the scene and makes concrete the violence that sustains armed exercises, shooting clubs and the human representation of targets.

The ventriloquization exercises, in different configurations, would also be structural in works such as Vacancy meat (2016), by Grace Passô, ligia (2017), by Nuno Ramos, what does she whisper (2020), by Noemi Jaffe, among others. And approach the video targets not only because of the procedure adopted, but also because of the exposure of a very specific artistic mediation (the non-coincidence of voice and place evoking Beckett, the song by Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque, the story of Nadejda and Ossip Mandelstam) and by a more or less less direct from the contextual out-of-field – the stray bullet, hidden in the body (and the direct questions to the audience), the clipping that exposes the edition of the highest-rated television newscast, perseverance in a minor key as a resistance strategy. However, this ventriloquism is distinguished from the enunciative tension and the internal divisions of the voice that problematized the diction of so many works during the first decade of the country's redemocratization period.

Because, at that moment, the instability of the voice and the ventriloquisms, in the midst of the project of expanding citizenship in the country (expressed in the 1988 Constitution) and the lucrative volatility of the economic markets, seemed to ask autocritically about the possible place, then, for the intellectual and artistic production. At the beginning of the XNUMXst century, the context is the end of the New Republic, the agonizing fraying of the social pact of redemocratization, and the hypertrophy of rent-seeking and (disastrous) military tutelage. To which are added a patent economic restriction and a potential loss of scope and immediate impact for cultural action. In the contemporary context, therefore, these ventriloquisations, in addition to being a demanding artistic procedure, would gain a tactical aspect and, as Nuno Ramos recorded about his own works, would point towards the “politicization of life to which, for better or for worse, the country has submitting”.[30]

Among the three works to which we draw attention here, from the point of view of ventriloquization, in the play Vacancy meat, by Grace Passô, begins with a scene occupied exclusively and entirely by a voice. “In the pitch, you hear the voice”: announces the play at the outset, almost ironically echoing the well-known beginning of Company, by Beckett. It reads: “A voice comes to someone in the dark. To imagine".[31]

The first ventriloquization is, then, that of the scenic space by an acousmatic, disproportionate, insurrectionary voice, which voraciously projects itself towards any and all matter: “Occasionally, when you realize that the glass has cracked for no apparent reason. Or even the frog that jumped, one day, at an unusual height. Or when the faucet dripped without interrupting, without interrupting, without interrupting, without interrupting... Go look! It is not entirely certain, but it is possible that it is not a physical event of matter, but rather matter, invaded by voices”.[32]

By the explicit reference, it can already be seen that this ventriloquization is accompanied by another, that of a principle of composition that is not only Beckettian, but that would become fundamental in the contemporary scene and literature — the use of an independent performative voice and essential alterities between voice and body, emitting source and locution. For Passô seems to stage, simultaneously, an untimely fluctuation of the voice by various matter, a conflictual coupling (exposed by the gestures) between voice and body and an investigative meta-schema about the procedures that it refigures and that lead the piece.

Having exposed the elements – the autonomization, the performative character of the voice, the non-coincidence of physical action and speech – we choose, as a transitory landing, in Vacancy meat, a female body that seems “inert”, “without action in the world”. Occupied by her voice, she starts to describe him in detail from the inside, weaving hypotheses and questions about his former existence: “I don't even know what this woman's body looks like on the outside anymore. Who is she? She does what? She's here, now, why? Her spine looks exhausted, can you tell from there? She smokes? Has she always been a woman? What color is she?…”.

And he continues trying to lend movement to her, moving a finger, swinging body parts, opening and closing his eyes, occupying the woman's body with words shouted from the audience: “Let's occupy this woman's body with words! This woman here is just a microphone, poor thing, she has nothing to say! Scream words, I'll put them in here!" Not forgetting that if the definitive version of Vacancy meat premiered in 2016, its first reading was in 2013, within the scope of the Janela de Dramaturgia project, in Belo Horizonte, right in the heat of the June Journeys. It's hard not to notice in that voice that oscillates between diverse matter, in that speech in continuous flux, that relentlessly challenges – the echo of others, many other voices, that occupied the streets, and something of the character of feverish demand, urgency and indetermination lived in those days.

Note what, in this context, Grace Passô would comment, on June 21 of the same year, about the relationship between theater and insurrection: “I think that, even making a parallel with everything that has happened in Brazil, we live a insurrection, a nameless human mobilization. What exists today, with these demonstrations, is a country trying to name very urgent feelings of the population. What works of art do is that too. They don't necessarily name, but try to create forms for these feelings. For this urgent need.”[33]

Intermittent material engagements and successive interlocutions keep the voice in perpetual motion, even inside the female body that shelters it, and in which it discovers a pregnant fetus, an orthopedic surgery pin, a never-extracted bullet: “It seems as foreign as I, here, inside this body. What are you doing here, projectile? […] One day I got into a gun pointed at a woman, when the projectile exploded and her body fell, I ran away. Were you the woman?

With the detection of the bullet in the body, there is a decisive incursion of the extra-frame in the text, projecting, there, the violent urban daily life, of stray bullets and preferential target bodies. A picture of violence that would expand, during the demonstrations of 2013, with truculence and the disproportionate use of force by the military police. And if the mention of the inactive bullet, absorbed by the body, will not have a greater immediate development in the play, this discovery is accompanied, however, by a kind of narrative acceleration.

The more direct interactions with the public, the self-inflicted incision on the body, the longer and longer verbal gaps and forgetfulness, eventually interrupt, all of them, the verbal flow. Leaving it, thus, to the sound ambience, to the space of the scene, and to a growing awareness of the body – “woman”, “black”, “here” -, which is gaining definition and place: “I already know who she is ! I already know! She's a woman, she's black... Wait! I already know! She is here, today, before you, and she would like to say that…”.[34] However, there remains — hence the repeated pronominal non-coincidence (I/she) — a figuration that is consciously divided, but coupled, of body and voice.

Em ligia, by Nuno Ramos, video publicly shown for the first time on August 31, 2017, a year after the opening of the impeachment process against Dilma Rousseff, twinning and disagreement also overlap. Because it is a combination of coupling — of the 1974 song by Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque, and the image and voice of the presenters of the National Journal in 2016 –, and disagreement – ​​between sound and image, between two times, between the two referents – the organizing principle of the work.

In this case, the initial working material were editions of National Newspaperl of March 16 and August 31, 2016, respectively the dates of the leak of Dilma Rousseff's conversation with Lula (about the possibility of the former president becoming Minister of the Civil House in her government) and the approval of the impeachment by the Senate . About the first date, there is an annotation in the heat of the hour, JN, 16.3.2016, later released by the artist, who dramaturgically explains the choice of this particular edition, beyond the historical significance of the leak: “When Moro released the recordings between Lula and Dilma, in addition to many others, the JN it became a full plate. They were reading live the hot roll of the transcripts that had just arrived (the recordings between Lula and Dilma were released that same afternoon), showing excessive intimacy, given the rush, with the material they had in their hands and not in the teleprompter […]. Without realizing it, they transformed themselves, throughout the transmission, into actors and not announcers, in a memorable slip”.[35]

It is what he classifies as a faulty act that also suggests the method adopted in ligia: “Crossing the border between narrating and acting, they no longer read – they interpreted, intoned, they even did a certain facial mime, without that distance, fake or not, that they always enact”. The re-reading of the March 16 newscast through the video would accentuate, by cutting them out, some of the gestures that denounced the staging: “The timing difficulties, small audio failures, entrances in the wrong camera accentuated this. They had lost the security of their tribune and that platinum aquarium seemed an integral part of the action they intended to narrate from afar”. The involuntary exposure of the press's undeniable activism in the defense and establishment of the impeachment would also indicate the artist's appropriation of audiovisual material from the day when, once the impeachment was approved, the right-wing forces finally achieved the intended political reorientation (which had not been obtained electorally) and the fascist change of direction in the running of the country.

The work of editing the video, including image and sound from TV Globo's news programs, took place in a more sensitive way in its sound layer, cutting out some syllables from the speeches of the presenters William Bonner and Renata Vasconcellos to recompose the song with them ligia, which thus replaces, in the voice of journalists, the text of the National Journal. The superimposition of the song on it, in a broken tempo (due to the editing work), evokes, in a way, the syncopated beat of bossa nova. It draws attention, on the other hand, to the mismatch between the happy dream of modernization of the original bossa nova period (already the object of late regrets during the period of composition of the song ligia) and the aggressive exposition – via television news – of the destruction of a social pact of a certain extent and of a three-decade democratic interregnum.

Thus, it was put on the air for a month, a National Journal another, in which the presenters sing Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque and point towards some ends – the New Republic, inclusion policies, respect for the ballot box, in which there does not, in fact, seem to be any room for bossa nova or for any of your everyday infraepiphanies. Repeated daily the video at the exact time of transmission of the National Journal, expands – via redefinition of content – ​​the exposure of the unequivocal ideological engagement of the grimaces and the pseudodramaticity of the presenters. Sung, on the other hand, by the generally hypertrophied voice of TV Globo, ligia would move, in Nuno's work, from personal melancholy to civic mourning, gaining the status of a collective funeral prayer, and a strong dimension of dissent amidst the false parliamentary and media consensus surrounding the deposition of the elected president and the reduction of rights that had been painfully conquered .

But when the romance what does she whisper, by Noemi Jaffe, is published in 2020, the picture of political appropriation of the country by the ultra-right has expanded, with the election of Jair Bolsonaro, the expansion of military tutelage and a growing instability of democratic institutions. There is a double ventriloquization that dialogues with this painting – Nadejda Mandelstam lending her voice to her husband’s poems for 25 years (before their publication in a book was authorized in the USSR), and the fictionalization of this unfolded diction that becomes a theme and narrative method of this historical novel.

“A silent subversion, which somehow escapes the control of the regime, like these planes that, flying so low and fast, escape the most powerful radars”[36]: the tactical whisper as a form of preservation and dissemination of diverse works. Repetition, even of the simplest formulations, works as a resistance exercise. As in the only partially invented episode of the bus, when after a woman bumps into Nadejda and apologizes, she says: “We are strong as hell”. And soon after, everyone there starts to repeat the same phrase, “like a harmless but resistant chorus that, with that phrase, would sustain an empire, stop an army and implode a regime”.

This is what Nadejda's memorization of Ossip Mandelstam's poems suggests to Noemi Jaffe. The strength of the almost imperceptible gestures of resistance, the voice that offers itself as a host for the text of another and that then forges a somewhat lateral narrative place, as an interposed figure in its own story. However, when the fictionalized voice is that of Anna Akhmatova, it is Nadezhda who is spoken of.

The guiding procedure of the narrative is repeated and, this time, the life of the other is ventriloquised. It is also repeated with another addressee (Nadejda), which distinguishes the first segment of the novel. From the monologue addressed by Nadejda to her husband (and interspersed with pieces of poems by Mandelstam) there is, at the end, another one, addressed to her by Akhmatova-character. This partially alters the general focus of the novel itself, which ends in a semi-epistolary manner: “Survive us all, Nadjenka, Nadjucha and be the pain of hoarse laughter, for us who, with so little stone, only have the strength necessary to die”.[37]

Em Vacancy meat, a voice without a name, without landing, insurgent, in search of configuration, remains in a split field even after the brief scene of recognition of the body (female, black) that it inhabits. In what does she whisper, an interposed voice narrates and re-tells through the other. In ligia, the interspersed voice is that of the remixed newscast, exposing the authoritarian media activism in reverse, and it is also that of the song by Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque lamenting, with a broken tempo, not only a difficult love, but bossa nova itself impossible in 1974. A vocal intertwining with the ironically national breadth of the TV show, and the intimate dimension of the samba-canção, thus refiguring, in a dissenting register, the dirge.



If ventriloquization calculates unfolds and conflicts the enunciation, in some exercises of critical twinning, this movement is directed, via superimposition and montage, to different forms of choralization. In the case of the tripartite project that Giselle Beiguelman named Hateland, for example, constitute three vast speech-files from the compilation of comments published on social networks about the actions of occupation of Cracolândia by the Military Police between May 21 and June 9, 2017, on the execution of Rio de Janeiro councilwoman Marielle Franco on March 14, 2018, and on the fire and collapse of the Wilton Paes de Almeida building, in Largo do Paissandu, in São Paulo, on May 1, 2018, an abandoned building occupied since 2003 by housing movements.

The three dates, expressive of the increase in police virulence, political violence, and the fascistization of public opinion, and even before the 2018 Brazilian election, also point to it and to the massive support base built digitally by the ultra-right, which tends to be activated with peculiar intensity in events of great public repercussion such as these. As in other works by Beiguelman, many of them focused on artistic-conceptual practices of the archive, these compilations would receive more than one format. The first part of Hateland it was originally created as a video installation included in the exhibition “São Paulo is not a city: the inventions of the Center”, held at Sesc on May 24, 2017. The video[38] would participate in several other exhibitions and its fundamental characteristic is not to display any other image than the reproduction of some of the comments about police actions in Cracolândia that circulated on the internet. They pass sequentially and horizontally across the dark screen while listening to real audio of PM actions, shots, helicopters, voices of homeless people and police, barking dogs, screams, bursts of bullets.

The second part of this work, focusing on the murder of Marielle Franco and Anderson Gomes in downtown Rio de Janeiro, was performed at the Museu de Arte do Rio (MAR) in December 2018. And the third part of Hateland, with a sample of hate speeches against social movements for housing, on the occasion of the collapse of the Wilton Paes de Almeida building, was partially read on Rádio USP[39] by the artist and researcher and published at the time also on a page of her website.

At the end of 2018, the three segments would be published in leaflet format by n-1 Edições, building three long choral speeches composed of phrases[40] cut out of manifestations, all of them, moved by hatred, by the violent rejection of any form of otherness, by regional, social, racial prejudice, by xenophobia, by homophobia, by misogyny. And, simultaneously, accompanied by unrestricted defense of militarization, executions, extermination, and guidelines such as the release of weapons, the death penalty, the end of the age of criminal responsibility. Hence the title of the work, underlining hatred, as Beiguelman explains: “The title of the work was born from the content of the messages posted by the public. Majority in favor of police handling of the issue and the use of force and firearms against addicts, they also express the desire to see the same policies applied to other groups. Northeasterners, landless people and gays are some of their targets”.[41]

In the montage of each of the choral segments, Beiguelman seems to evoke the lines of “good citizens” by André Sant'Anna, as well as certain procedures characteristic of dramaturgies of the real, and raw appropriations of documentary material, such as those carried out, for example , by Kenneth Goldsmith. It perhaps also evokes the various critical reuses of lines used during the impeachment vote by the Brazilian Congress. as in the play April[42] (2016), by Gabriela Carneiro da Cunha and Erik Rocha, where a woman sinks (until sinking) into a bed while listening to the hysterical yeses coming from a non-stop TV, a work that would be staged by actress Carolina Virguez at Castelinho do Flamengo .[43] as in the book Session, with poems assembled from these manifestations of parliamentarians and published by Editora Luna Parque in 2017.

In line with these appropriations – “disassociated from names and images”[44] – Giselle Beiguelman’s tripartite “cordel” would compose an archival work that she herself refers to as the “snake’s egg”, in the sense of constituting a significant repository of the topic and rhetoric of intolerance and authoritarianism in the country, in the years of 2017 and 2018. The sequential montage of the three textual flows (with a brief time interval between occurrences) and the evidence of their rhetorical interrelation underlines the maturation process of this “egg”, but contrasts, on the other hand, the triple plot, a similar mode of intentionally parasitic self-reproduction fabulation in the three variants. The almost inertial reduplication of contents increases its construction and expansion speed, but also the possibility of self-figuration as a monologue to several voices of these hate-choruses.


Assembly, motet, riot

The chorality worked by André Vallias in Motet for Lima Barreto. Not that it does not enunciate, vehemently, the antagonism to structural elements to these hate-choruses, and to the support they lend to Brazilian authoritarianism. Vallias' poem constitutes a polyphonic palimpsest in which two times converge and interrelate – the beginning of the republic and the end of the “New Republic”. In it, the voices of Numa Ciro, Paulo Sabino and Vallias alternate, and three distinct sets of material are superimposed.

There are, on the one hand, verbivocovisual invocations to a series of names — reproducing some of the pseudonyms used by Lima Barreto Jonathan, Xim, Horácio Acácio, Inácio Costa, Pendant, Barão de Sumaret, Eran, Amil, J. Caminha, S. Holmes , Phileas Fogg, Naive, Tradittore. Some of them already known, others still dubious, others determined by researcher Felipe Botelho Corrêa, who gathered, in 2016, a set of unpublished writings[45] of the writer, emphasizing that, as a common practice at the time, the fictitious name was imposed above all in “satirical texts of social or political comments”.[46]

There is also a set of selected excerpts from the writer's chronicles published in 1917 and 1918, in which the impact of the 1917 Revolution is evident, with Lima Barreto ending one of them, in May of the following year, with “A face do mundo changed. Hail Russia!” The citation sources are “Vera Zasulitch”, published in the magazine Bras Cubas on July 14, 1918, “Sao Paulo and Foreigners”, published in The Debate on October 6, 1917, “On the reckoning…”, published on May 11, 1918 in the periodical ABC The cut excerpts are a historical commentary that, if embedded in Brazil during the Old Republic and the first workers' uprisings and strikes, also shed light on the nationwide mass mobilizations of June 2013, the fraying of the 1988 social pact and the response of new oligarchic-militarized to this context with the 2016 coup and the subsequent election of the ultra-right candidate.

Vallias' poem vocalizes some of these excerpts from Barret's chronicles. And Lima Barreto's comments follow each other. On the Proclamation of the Republic: “the patrols walked the streets, armed with carbines”, “the face of the city was one of stupor and fear”, “it gradually accentuated the features it already carried in its cradle”. On the plutocracy and its “constant influence, day and night, on the laws and on the rulers, in favor of its insatiable enrichment”, draining “all the sweat and all the blood of the country into its vaults, in form of high policy price and interest rates”. On religious hypocrisy, the doctors of law and their oligarchic links: “the argentarians of Brazil never pretended to be more religious than they are now”, “a social reform must be carried out against 'the Law' of which they are priests, because their God is already dead.”

Barret's observations intertwine the two times (beginning of the Republic and the agony of the New Republic) and place them in mutual projection. To the fragmented reading of the excerpts and the invocation in the fictitious names of Lima Barreto (making him a legion) there would be added, still, a third component of the motet – a series of poems by Vallias that are contemporary or directly linked to the June 2013 Journeys: “civil poem n-1”, “modernity”, “symmetry”, “hardwood”, mask”, “opprobrium”.

They present, in another context, that of the 2013st century, refigurations of topics similar to those of the chronicles of the beginning of the XNUMXth century: the control of the State by the “argentários” (the “Ex/tado”, “everything is dominated”), the police brutality against the poor, blacks, insurgents (“that the law of hardwood/ more than hardwood”), the combination of two “Belo Monte” (the Canudos camp, in Bahia, and the hydroelectric plant on the Xingu River, in Pará), the condemnation of Rafael Braga, a can picker from Vila Cruzeiro, for the protests of June XNUMX, characteristic of penal selectivity in the country (“opprobrium/ the poor black/ arrested to be/ the scapegoat”), echoing the fear, rifles, the “jackals and hyenas at the service of the bourgeois” described by Lima Barreto. All these refigurations operate, from the point of view of historical semantics, as almost rhymes that intensify the connections indicated in this double fabulation. And thus allow a heterochronic projection also of the Barretian diagnosis almost whispered in the motet: “the time is one of radical measures”.

If the coupling of the two times is a fundamental element of the composition-by-twinning of the poem, its choralization perceptibly goes far beyond the fabular duplication in echo. Hence the list of “Lima-Barretos” with other masks. Hence the thickening of the sound dimension, in addition to the three lead voices, including composition by Marlos Nobre and other very brief insertions. And there is the concern (own, also, to the motet) with the complexity of the vocabulary plot – the spoken and read word, visible or just spoken, in an overlapping situation, in a spiral path or in poster mode.

Well the Motet for Lima Barreto – an electronically assembled work – presents itself as an active chorality, a self-expository structure (in echo and in differentiation) of the components that define and segment it. It thus fulfills a complexification function also within the scope of continued investigation of the poem as an open interrelational and intermedial structure. And its epic-critical dimension (see Totem and Oratory), which constitutes a fundamental aspect of André Vallias' method.


The voice over and coralization

With a focus on a geographic focus similar to that which originated the first segment of Hateland – Largo do Paissandu, in the center of São Paulo – Bia Lessa would work, however, with quite different choralities in her filmic triptych Asphyxia/Commodity/The Ordinary. Starting with the variations that distinguish each of the films, even with the transit of certain images and references between them and the tension between dystopia and utopia that runs through all three.

Resulting from the impossibility of regular face-to-face intervention in the buildings located in Largo do Paissandu during the years 2020–2021, the configuration of this project – twinning a real place and a digital place – emerged as a response to this situation, opting for the virtual occupation of abandoned spaces, degraded or underutilized areas of the region through exhibitions, projections, installations made exclusively by digital animation.

This choice was accompanied by another – the experience, unless I’m mistaken, unprecedented in the director’s work of creating, throughout the entire triptych, an intermittent focus of locution performed with her own voice. This is done in an intentional dialogue with the voice over adopted by Glauber Rocha in films such as Clear and Di, or in the program Opening. The exposure of the authorial voice, in the case of Bia, making her an active component in the midst of the vast process of compilation and montage carried out in the filmic triptych, thought, at a certain point, as a simultaneous refiguration (without any ascending or infernal progression) of the Dantesque tripartite structure.

Instead of hypertrophying it, this inclusion would make this voice one more of the clippings, a sound focus that gradually becomes choral, at first through the overlapping of the filmic lines and those of the filmmaker himself, to which others and others are added, dramatizing themselves, which, at first, could seem like an exclusive personal trace or, on the contrary, just citational. The personal trace persists, but it is subjected, like all the other materials, to methodical theatricalization.

The initial change in the means of carrying out what was an occupation and exhibition project would necessarily activate other layers of contrasts – the fundamental one, throughout the work, would be between clippings from the filmography and insurgent thought of Glauber Rocha and questions and works by present that are particularly enlightened by them. In each series of contrapositions and speculative-imagetic echoes (dystopia/utopia, commodity/rarefaction, extinction and reasons-for-why), if there are voices that interrupt other voices or ceaselessly overlap them, there are also choruses against choirs – such as that of the homeless and the police, in the beginning, those of the various religious manifestations, that of active liberation movements in Africa (recorded by Glauber) and the aporia of piles and piles of diverse accumulations.

And there are intra/infrachores against (and over) intra/infrachores, because, within each of these zones of coralization, there is also no cohesion that sustains simple opposing pairs. Even the tensions between dystopia/utopia, essential to the construction of the triptych, also act there as mutual folds. The figures that roam the urban landscape of the first frame (undoubtedly predominantly dystopian) of the triptych are themselves twinned – the composite bodies, made of pieces of other bodies, of other things, the faces exposing the diverse extraction of each component. Evoking, at times, the blatant explicitness of the cutout, some of Grette Stern's photomontages, including the conception of composite figures. The blatant explicitness of the cut, the montage, the visibility of the cut will remain throughout the triptych and will be fundamental in the game with the reproductions of filmic excerpts cut (themselves too) on cloth and paper during the face-to-face performances at Sesc Paulista.

Even in the context of urban projects, in which Paulo Mendes da Rocha and Guilherme Wisnik, for example, beautifully contradict each other, the speeches are kept unfinished – like all the others, in fact. What seems to interest Bia Lessa there is, above all, the intense flow, the continuous activation of recombinations. So, certain images and clippings of speeches come back and interact with others, while outlining different zones of reflection, different hypotheses of fabulation. As in the interior of the figures made from cutouts of the first segment. And the uninterrupted presentation of materials, if it escapes the collection, does not escape rearticulations – because the twinned structures that organize the films have the function of potentially keeping the recombination in process.

No wonder even the film medium would gain contrast and refiguration with the possibility of returning to face-to-face activities. In the exhibition space at Sesc Paulista, the pre-filmed triptych (enlarged to an immense scale and in an almost looping process through continuous projection throughout the day) was twinned with live performances and different materializations of excerpts and referred works. A language (cinematic) in confrontation and in supplementation by another (scenic-expository). The filmic sequence is thus redefined by theatrical cuts, by disobedient interference with the previous audiovisual organization, recutting what seemed already edited. And, additional twinning: the extra frame, the street factor. Because the performances start to leave the exhibition space and incorporate the weekend circulation of Avenida Paulista, unfolding, in a triple fabulation, the filmic into the performative, and the exhibition into lightning manifestations through the urban space.


the extra frame

The street, fundamental in the occupation project of Largo do Paissandu, and in the Glauberian cutouts, erupts, therefore, again, in an active way, in the expository version of Bia Lessa's triptych. The targets discarded by shooting academies have, as seen, a decisive role in the video targets and act as a support and transit place for the drawings in the exhibition space Pisa na Paura, by Lenora de Barros. Since 2018, Nuno Ramos has been systematically working with the interference and disagreement between on- and off-field in a series of performances that he has generically called Ao Vivos, which include the two versions of “See you here"[47] (2017 and 2018), the three “To the living: debates"[48] (2018) and No sooner said than done[49] (2021)

The usual method is the insertion, with a short time interval, and in a different context, of text originating from some audiovisual-television extra-field (electoral debates, TV programming, TV Globo), filmic (earth in trance), on video (talks captured on the streets in No sooner said than done). The reference text and the reinsertion context are previously announced, and the repetition takes place, then, in real time, from the audio received via headphones.

Contrary to what happens, in general, in shows by the Wooster Group, for example, which tend to visually expose the referents when they play with re-enactment, in the case of these performances idealized by Nuno, it is known, but not necessarily seen, what is the source of the replays delivered from the headphones. It is also known that the audios come, sequentially and instantly, from an extra-frame context. And it belongs to the vacillations, the hesitations, the delay between transmission and retransmission, audio and scenic action, frame and extraframe that feed these works.

A similar procedure (but with a somewhat different proposition) would be adopted by the artist, alongside Eduardo Climachauska, in Cassandra 1, performance performed by the two artists at Galeria Anita Schwartz on June 9, 2018, from 12:18 to XNUMX:XNUMX. In this case, the extra frame was offered by the newspaper edition The globe of the day of the performance, which was read by both of them, facing the gallery walls, with their backs to the audience, without any interaction with it. The reading was continuous until they came across, suddenly, some expression indicative of time or duration. At that moment there was, then, a brief interruption, recorded in a kind of chronometer, and then we returned to the newspaper and the recording of the passage of time.

In 2022, in performance Lost, this continued reading was maintained, but with a significant change in the place assigned to the off-field (from which the text is no longer extracted) and in the pluralization of auditory vanishing points. In this case, a complete reading of in search of lost time for 21 consecutive days, and for 8 hours a day, at the Mário de Andrade Library. Through loudspeakers submerged in seven aquariums, each with a fish-spectator, most of the reading was projected there. Along which, each time the word “time” appeared, the reader in activity at that moment had to repeat it into another microphone, connected to a large speaker located on Rua da Consolação. At the same time, a motorcyclist, traveling through the center of São Paulo, wherever he was, was warned and had to immediately shout “time” through a megaphone.

In this set of performances by Nuno Ramos, it is as segmentation of times (however concomitant) and coupling-in-disagreement of contexts (not all available visually, of course) that this invocation – “live” – of the extraframe is presented. Whether as an informational source, or as a place of listening and repercussion. This underlines, with the urgency of real time, not only a split in the enunciation, in the emitting source (which also obeys audios or other sources), but also in the very awareness of the insertion of performer and observer in common time, in the common life, they too in decalage. The contrast, even minimal, the delay, even minimal, in these repetitions, underlining the split between contexts, contemporaneities, however alive and co-present. The temporal segmentations imposing, from this point of view, the necessarily split experience of the present hour.

It is for a similar reinforcement of the extra-frame function that the poet Ricardo Aleixo directly signals in a book published in 2020 by Impressões de Minas Editora. The chosen title itself points in that direction, of course. But, also, the use of intervals, of blanks, the parallel columns within pages, the layout almost leaking the margins, the internal expansions between poems. As happens with a minimal excerpt (“all/the time// and now”) of the text that lends the name to the book and that unfolds, beautifully, in the multiple variations that constitute “All the time, everything changes”.

In this sense, extra frame[50] dialogues with the entire trajectory of the poet, and his reinventions – via performance, via clippings (often intentionally at random) of the poems themselves in new vocalizations, via topical textual variations, sound and musical experiments. The book seems to engage in a particularly intense interlocution, however, with Impossible as never having had a face,[51] released in 2016.

Impossible as never having had a face it presents an almost programmatic exposition of different forms of reframing and internal leakage within each poem. In Rosto, for example, the whole hypothesis of figuration is indeterminate with each use of parentheses (themselves intentionally displaced in the lines), which point to its silence, its lack of definition, to a possible unfolding, detachment, false impression. Even, at the end, when one imagines – paradoxically – a possible image: “) The possible face, given the/ circumstances (/ Impossible as never having had a face)”.

Em the only things, it is about what is “between”, what slides between things, the interval of transformation, the interruption of a movement, what “exists and no one sees / nor hears that // that exists. /This." The poem itself defining itself as that which is between, as an almost out-of-field that cuts the frame and presents itself as a fold, as inside/outside. What would gain interval synthesis also in Stamps: “everything passed/ at intervals blows/ of tense wings//timbre that/ resounds in the vacuum from// zero/ to one”.

These procedures, the methodical investigation of gaps, intervals, parentheses, the graphic irruptions of silence and the forms of cutting and clipping also guide the 2021 book. / one inside/the other/ one” (as he metapoetically exposed Flights). Then, they are observed in extra frame, this time with an explicit focus on field/off-field tension, a new series of parenthetical experiments (in myself", Popular mechanics, Waiting for you, No floor, The muse's refusal), of uses of interval leaks (Almost Epic, Program), spacing (The one they were waiting for), and interrupts (tell me, even if), in addition to direct thematizations of silence (as in My body) and the dramatized split of the voice (see Like how? e There were cases where the past came more than once).

There is, however, a very particular refiguration in extra frame, of this interval poetics, of these tensions that inhabit the graphic space of his poems. Because there they are literally named and exposed (see photo on the back cover) leakage and off-field of another order. In the opening poem of the book, almost epic, Aleixo invents a nonexistent photo, exposing the elegant courage of his father and uncle strolling, in the 1920s, through Praça da Liberdade, in Belo Horizonte, on a path “reserved for whites”. in the poem extra frame, it is also a photo, and some exclusions offered by some extracampos, that it is about. But then the photo is not imaginary.

The poem extra frame is fundamentally the description of this photo. It has an address (Rua Grão Pará, 589), location (São Lucas) and defined caption (Sociedade Recreativa Palmeiras), the date is undetermined (1966, perhaps), and part of the group of children playing there is precisely identified (“the caretaker's children").

The photo is present in the book, even allowing verification. The image includes adults and other (white) children occupying the same circle, the same collective toy. However, the poem makes it clear — it is, and it is not she, the extra frame. The photo (described) exposes, in it, the exclusion (in the frame) of the caretaker's house — you only see the club. It exposes laughter and, however, does not expose Brazil's mourning of the military dictatorship of 1964, which haunts, absent, the photo. It organizes all children in the same “wheel” and yet racism, social inequality and political authoritarianism actually make it spin. All this makes up another extra frame. As he had done, in different ways, in poems like Rondo from the night watch, My Negro, I know you by smell, Whites, among others, Ricardo Aleixo overlaps these extra-fields with the other components of the poem. And he thus imposes them as decisive factors in the composition, and in its reading.

The emphasis on off-camera in Aleixo's 2021 book, the exhibition's expansion to the street letters to the world, the remains of the shooting club as expository material, the motoboy shouting “time” through the center of São Paulo — all these actions expose an almost raw presence of the historical hour in the artistic and critical experience that the time of now, that Brazil gives “ decade that begins” (to return to Silviano Santiago's fable) imposes.

Returning once more to it, and to the hypertrophied parasitic mesh through which the Brazilian situation is read here, it is evident that this visualization (by interposed image) was not gratuitous. As Victor Klemperer recorded in his study on the language of the Third Reich, it is worth noting how common it was in Nazi Germany to call Jews a “parasitic race”, deriving from this insulting racist association a whole set of negative expressions, referring even to actions regular extermination. Among them, the designation of the residential guard (instituted at the end of World War II) as a “team to combat parasites of the people”, and the name of the company directly responsible for sending gas to the death camps, which became “Society International Parasite Combat”.

Early in the Bolsonaro government, the Minister of Economy, Paulo Guedes, unsuccessfully tried to apply the same association to Brazilian civil servants. Bolsonarist circles tried to do the same by constantly harassing artists, intellectuals, social movements, the homeless and landless, quilombolas, indigenous peoples, research fellows and so on. Invariably reappearing in these choruses of hate – as exposed in the work of Giselle Beiguelman – the expression “parasite” as a qualifier or diagnosis indicative of exclusion. In both cases, the minister and the neo-fascist digital choirs, the strategy – known to be similar to that adopted by the Nazi leadership – would not prosper on the scale desired by these ultra-right agents.

On the contrary, and not so paradoxically, the analogy to parasitism would, in fact, gain applicability and relevance in recent years, as we tried to observe here, when the reference object became the government itself that started in the country in 2019. And included, in this analogical field, the colonies of dysfunctional figures implanted in the various public institutions, as well as the rentier economic policies and the large-scale dismantling of what is public. A perception that would necessarily expand with the situation of uncontrolled pandemic. The coronavirus, an intracellular parasite, and the thousands of deaths caused by it signal, involuntarily and mournfully, to the immediate consequences, in the country, of the Bolsonarist unfolding of the 2016 coup.

Confronted with this picture were artistic and literary manifestations that, playing with “hosts” or pretending to be “hostesses”, invented, via different procedures of coupling and critical twinning, compositional dynamics driven by material consciousness, by variation, and by methodical disagreement. Works that are not intended, nor are they, simple mimetic responses to other works with which, however, they carry out explicit interaction. Nor do they specularly reproduce this context which, among its fundamental perspectives of visualization, clearly has one of them in different forms of asymmetrical-parasitic relationship.

However, as we observe here, they offer this context and these interactions a contrasting framework endowed with a unique deconstructive power. In addition to undeniable practical quality, as they also affirm, in circumstances of aporetic semiparalysis, crucial forms of autonomy. I recall, in this sense, once again, the end of wasp eggs – inclement and indeterminate – and rightly highlighting the fearsome efficiency of the parasite.

I also end this essay in a context of active confrontation – and of an unequivocal perception of an expanded role of the ultra-right in the country. Signaling (in a still partially deaf way), however, above all to the radicality (perhaps subject to extra-frame unfolding) of the dissensual dynamics of these artistic experiments.

*Flora Sussekind is a professor of Brazilian literature at UniRio and a researcher at Casa de Rui Barbosa. Author, among other books, of Literature and literary life (Jorge Zahar).


Flora Süssekind. choirs, contraries, mass. Recife, Cepe Editora, 2022, 664 pages.

Article originally published in the Pernambuco Supplement [].


[1] Reference to Aristotle's well-known commentary on Poetics: “a beautiful thing – be it an animal or an entire action – being composed of some parts, will need not only to have them ordered, but also to have a dimension that is not random”. Aristotle. Poetics. Translation and notes by Ana Maria Valente. 6th Edition. Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 2018, p. 51.

[2] Ramos, Nuno. “Exit Antigone” In: Magazine Piauí. Edition 167, August 2020. Cf.

[3] The motet (from mot: word, in French), choral composition marked by the overlapping of independent voices and in distinct rhythmic configurations, by the use of secular and sacred texts, by plurilingualism (often Latin and French) and by a polyphonic experience based mainly on the word, as the generic designation itself suggests.

[4] I note that I had the opportunity to accompany, throughout the years 2020 and 2021, the process of carrying out this work by Bia Lessa, whom I thank for the interlocution.

[5] Cf. Bárbara Silveira and Felipe Paranhos, “About Temer in power, Dilma sees a “parasite” that “if it continues, it will kill democracy”, article reproduced from UOL in Metro 1 on June 28, 2016.,sobre-temer-no-poder-dilma-ve-parasita-que-se-continuar-mata-a–democracia,sobre-temer-no-poder-dilma-ve-parasita-que-se-continuar-mata-a–democracia

[6] Adorno, Theodor. Aspects of the new right-wing radicalism. Translation by Felipe Catalani. São Paulo: Editora Unesp, 2020, p. 48

[7] Noble, Mark. “The virus and the parasite”. Illustrious, Folha de S. Paul 18/3/2020. Online access at the following link:–coronavirus.shtml2020/03/e-preciso-por-bolsonaro-em-quarentena-para-superar-crise-do–coronavirus.shtml

[8] ID Ibid.

[9] See, in this sense, in particular, The Civil War in France (1871) by Karl Marx. (Marx, K. The Civil War in FranceThe. Selection of texts, translation and notes Rubens Enderle; [presentation by Antonio Rago Filho]. São Paulo: Boitempo, 2011).

[10] Luxemburg, Rosa. Capital accumulation: contribution to the economic study of imperialism. Trans. Marijane Vieira Lisboa. 2nd ed. Collection The Economists. São Paulo: Nova Cultural, 1985. See also Loureiro, Isabel. “The Least Eurocentric of All: Rosa Luxemburg and Permanent Primitive Accumulation”. In: Rosa Luxemburg: or the price of freedom. Jörn Schütrumpf (Ed.). São Paulo: Rosa Luxemburgo Foundation, 2015, p. 97-107.

[11] I refer in particular to Latin America: evils of origin. Social parasitism and evolution. Rio de Janeiro, Paris, Garnier, sd (1905), by Manoel Bomfim.

[12] Bauman, Zygmunt. Parasitic capitalism: and other contemporary themes. Translated by Eliana Aguiar. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed., 2010, p. 9-10.

[13] Cf. Márcio Pochmann, “Brazil, showcase of parasitic rentism” IN: Other words, November 16, 2021.

Access link:

[14] Bearing in mind that Rodrigo Nunes does not explicitly employ any analogy to parasitism, I summarize, in general terms, some of the observations about trolling contained in “Alvim made a mistake in nazi trolling inspired by the US right” In: Folha de S. Paul, 21/1/2020. The analogy appears, however, in an interview by the PUC-Rio professor to João Vitor Santos on February 15, 2022, in which he makes a brief reference to Marcos Nobre's analysis of the Bolsonaro government.

Access links:––inspirada-na-direita-dos-eua.shtml e–e-a-brutalizacao-dos-afetos-entrevista-especial-com-rodrigo-nunesentrevistas/608123-bolsonarismo-como-identidade-coletiva-a-logica-sacrificial–e-a-brutalizacao-dos-afetos-entrevista-especial-com-rodrigo-nunes

[15] troll, trolling, trolling (from English I'm trolling) are popular expressions, for decades, in the gay world, indicating the random hunts in search of loving partners, which would be incorporated, in the 1990s, into the vocabulary of digital culture, to designate the systematic provocateurs of the internet, whose fallacies, destabilizations and Redirection of discussions often stimulates outrage, multidirectional engagements, and bellicose interactions.

[16] Alt-right: alternative right, translated as “alternative right”.

[7] Cf. “Alvim made a mistake in nazi trolling inspired by the US right” In: Folha de S. Paul, 21/1/2020.

[18] Ramos, Nuno. The Tax Island Ball. In: “Illustrious”, Folha de S. Paul, May 3, 2020, accessible at:–ramos.shtml

[19] ID Ibid.

[20] Soares, Luiz Eduardo. Inside the Fierce Night: Fascism in Brazil. 1st ed. São Paulo: Boitempo, 2020, p. 71-72.

[21] ID Ibid.

[22] Some expressions activated by the Brazilian reactionary linguistic practice, and converted into socially active stereotypes with the political rise of right-wing extremist movements, were equally fundamental in the construction of their targets of coordinated harassment: independent women, homosexuals, journalism, intellectual work. In this sense, expressions such as “gender ideology”, “extreme press”, “cultural Marxism”, “mimimi”, “feminazi”, “heterophobia”, “human rights”, and so on are exemplary.

[23] “Klemperer, Victor. LTI: language in the Third Reich. Translation by Míriam Bettina Paulina Oelsner. Rio de Janeiro: Counterpoint, 2009. p. 75.

[24] Cf. Silviano Santiago, “Eggs of Wasp, A Fable", Pernambuco Supplement, July 25, 2020.

Access link:,-uma–,-uma–f%C3%A1bula.html

[25] Recalling here the Brechtian conception of fabulation, object of reflection by the playwright, among other texts, in small organon to the theater. I quote an excerpt from a commentary on this subject by Jean-Pierre Sarrazac in the future of drama. Porto: Campo das Letras, 2002, p. 34.

[26] See, in this regard, the synthesis carried out by Giuliano Da Empoli in The Chaos Engineers (São Paulo: Vestigio, 2019).

[27] Mariz, Renata.“Number of Brazilians who become shooters to obtain a license explodes in the country” In: The Globe, 30/7/2017.

Available in:–para-obter-licenca-explode-no-pais-21645849

[28] targets, by Lenora de Barros, 2017. Technical data: video, color, stereo, duration: 6'20''. Production and editing: Marcia Beatriz Granero. Production assistant: Luiza Calmon. Finalization: Yuri Amaral. Photography: Fabio Bardella. Sound design and mixing: Gustavo Vasconcelos.

Access link:

[29] Craft, Catherine. Jasper johns. Parkstone Press UK, 2009, p. 35-36.

[30] Ramos, Nuno. Fooquega (A diary). Sao Paulo, Ed. However, 2022, p. 192.

[31] Beckett, Samuel. Company and other texts; translation Ana Helena Souza. São Paulo: Editora Globo, 2012, p. 27.

[32] Step, Grace. Vacancy meat. Belo Horizonte: Editora Javali, 2018, p. 15.

[33] Cf. Caroline Maria, “Manifestations: Theater and Brazil, by Grace Passô (actress and playwright)”:,142510/veja-comentario-da-atriz-e–dramaturga-grace-passo-sobre-o-teatro-e-o-b.shtml2013/06/21/noticia_programese,142510/veja-comentario-da-atriz-e–dramaturga-grace-passo-sobre-o-teatro-e-o-b.shtml

[34] Vacancy meat, P. 52.

[35] Ramos, Nuno. “JN, 16.3.2016” In: Fooquedeu (A diary). Sao Paulo, Ed. However, 2022, p. 38-39.

[36] Cf. Noemi Jaffe, op. cit.

[37] ID Ibid.

[38] Access link:–brasileira/odiolandia/-brasileira/odiolandia/

[39] The Radio USP program and a list of comments can be accessed at this site:

[40] Examples of sentences compiled by Beiguelman: “A bandit's place is in the ditch. Too late."; “Invaders are worse than weeds, they leave their mark wherever they go.”; “Death of a politician is cleaning up the country.”; “Are you feeling bad? Open the doors of your house for the homeless to live in, then.”; "I wish I could see her face now, melting in hell."; “It would be better if it was full of Venezuelans, Haitians, Bolivians..”; "Let's be sensible, you have to kill, otherwise, it won't solve."; "What a beautiful thing. Let the people here in the interior do that with the landless, but using the 12 with 3T lead.”

[41] See

[42] On April 17, 2016, the vote in the Chamber of Deputies started the process of impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff.

[43] April. Directed by: Eryk Rocha and Gabriela Carneiro da Cunha. Dramaturgy: Eryk Rocha, Gabriela Carneiro da Cunha, Carolina Virguez, Julia Ariani and Bruno Carneiro, in partnership with everyday farce playwrights. Performance: Carolina Virguez. Synopsis: “Make the closed state cease; To stop the state of inactivity of certain things; Disunite, enlarge; Make it work or circulate; Uncover; Unwrap or tear; Digging to make deep; Make accessible; Start to; Give a chance to; Open. It opened. April. A scenic dialogue between theater and genre cinema where, through the television frame, a woman sees a world of horror. New and old ghosts haunt the month of April again”.

[44] Beiguelman, Giselle. Hateland. São Paulo: n-1 editions, 2018, p. 9.

[45] Barreto, Lima. Satires and other subversions: unpublished texts; organization, introduction, research and notes. Org: Felipe Botelho Corrêa. 1st ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2016.

[46] ID Ibid., P. 13.

[47] See you here had a version presented at the 31st Porto Alegre Art Festival in 2017 and another at the 5th São Paulo International Theater Show, in 2018.

[48] To the living: debates, a series of three pieces performed on the dates of the electoral debates for the presidency in 2018: Debate No. 1 - Dervish, Debate #2 - Antigone and Debate #3 — Earth in a trance. Only the first, as is known, actually reproduced a debate simultaneously. The others were canceled due to the stabbing episode that would allow candidate Jair Bolsonaro to justify his non-participation.

[49] No sooner said than done, a performance held between June 15th and 18th, 2021, at Instituto Ling in Porto Alegre.

[50] Alexis, Ricardo. extra frame. Belo Horizonte: Impressions of Minas, 2020.

[51] Alexis, Ricardo. Impossible as never having had a face. Belo Horizonte, Author's Edition, 2015.

The site the earth is round exists thanks to our readers and supporters. Help us keep this idea going.
Click here and find how

See this link for all articles


  • Franz Kafka, libertarian spiritFranz Kafka, libertarian spirit 13/06/2024 By MICHAEL LÖWY: Notes on the occasion of the centenary of the death of the Czech writer
  • The society of dead historyclassroom similar to the one in usp history 16/06/2024 By ANTONIO SIMPLICIO DE ALMEIDA NETO: The subject of history was inserted into a generic area called Applied Human and Social Sciences and, finally, disappeared into the curricular drain
  • About artificial ignoranceEugenio Bucci 15/06/2024 By EUGÊNIO BUCCI: Today, ignorance is not an uninhabited house, devoid of ideas, but a building full of disjointed nonsense, a goo of heavy density that occupies every space
  • A look at the 2024 federal strikelula haddad 20/06/2024 By IAEL DE SOUZA: A few months into government, Lula's electoral fraud was proven, accompanied by his “faithful henchman”, the Minister of Finance, Fernando Haddad
  • Letter to the presidentSquid 59mk,g 18/06/2024 By FRANCISCO ALVES, JOÃO DOS REIS SILVA JÚNIOR & VALDEMAR SGUISSARDI: “We completely agree with Your Excellency. when he states and reaffirms that 'Education is an investment, not an expense'”
  • Return to the path of hopelate afternoon 21/06/2024 By JUAREZ GUIMARÃES & MARILANE TEIXEIRA: Five initiatives that can allow the Brazilian left and center-left to resume dialogue with the majority hope of Brazilians
  • Chico Buarque, 80 years oldchico 19/06/2024 By ROGÉRIO RUFINO DE OLIVEIRA: The class struggle, universal, is particularized in the refinement of constructive intention, in the tone of proletarian proparoxytones
  • The collapse of Zionismfree palestine 80 23/06/2024 By ILAN PAPPÉ: Whether people welcome the idea or fear it, Israel's collapse has become predictable. This possibility should inform the long-term conversation about the future of the region
  • Why are we on strike?statue 50g 20/06/2024 By SERGIO STOCO: We have reached a situation of shortage of federal educational institutions
  • Theological manual of neoliberal neo-PentecostalismJesus saves 22/06/2024 By LEONARDO SACRAMENTO: Theology has become coaching or encouraging disputes between workers in the world of work