Glauber Rocha and the hardships of a bad conscience

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By FERNÃO PESSOA RAMOS*

Few years have passed since the pre-1964 illusions, but a lot has happened in that time of extremes.

“The martyrdom of Christ would be opposite to that of Dionysius: in the first case, life is judged and must be atoned for; in the second, it is fair enough to support anything in itself. 'Dionysius against the crucified'”.
(Gilles Deleuze, Nietzsche).

1.

earth in trance (1967) influenced not only the cinemanova generation, but also a wide range of contemporary artists. From Hélio Oiticica to José Celso Martinez, including Caetano Veloso, everyone has statements attesting to their surprise with the film, including its proximity to what would become Tropicalismo.

earth in trance was made in the second half of 1966, still breathing the direct effects of the 1964 military coup. Although the first Cinema Novo features were more intimate (see Paulo César Saraceni, Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, Leon Hirszman and Cacá Diegues), both the production linked to the UNE Popular Culture Centers from before 1964 (the long episode Five Times Favela and also the unfinished Goat Marked to Die), as Glauber's first feature film (Barravento), Or The Rifles by Ruy Guerra, develop a fictional universe in which the figure of the people or the 'popular' emerges as otherness.

This figure appears as an 'other' who is not the 'self' (the vast majority of filmmakers are men and socially 'white', with origins in the Brazilian middle class environment). One looks at the popular other initially with distrust and astonishment, then with exasperation and, finally, with dazzlement. As a whole, we find a historical evolution regarding the representation of 'popular' otherness, unprecedented in this form, in Brazilian culture. It moves from empathy with the social other to a heavy bad conscience, a rift that we will also find in the period called “Resumption” and in the first decade of the 2000s.

The initial contours of the representation of 'popular' appear in Nelson Pereira dos Santos' first feature film, River, 40 Degrees, from 1955, a work that marks, in its mode of expression, the new Brazilian cinema of the 1960s. It still breathes the representation of the popular 'naive', naturally and without guilt, in an opening similar to that which inaugurates the presence of new rhythms in the song and the very notion of Brazilian popular music.

The central difference, in order to understand the particularities of the art of cinema, is that in song the other-people produces their art (the samba tradition, for example) influencing the whole, while in cinema the artistic activity of the other-popular will be, until very recently, absent. Until the second decade of the 2000s, there was never a stronger tradition of popular authorship in Brazilian cinema. Perhaps that is why the fissure with popular otherness, and the dilemmas of conscience that surround it, are acute and felt so intensely.[I]

In the films of the cinemanovista generation before 1964, the representation of popular otherness still manages to possess a knowledge without bad conscience about the popular other. There is a naturalness in the ascendancy of the discourse of the enlightened middle class over the other-people in which difference is swallowed without exasperation. It even serves to criticize popular culture in its expression close to trance (in Candomblé, football, the strong rhythms of samba), as we can see in works such as Barravento, Os Fuzis, in the five episodes of Five Times Favela, in the media of the Farkas group that would later make up Brazil Truth (Viramundo, Subterrâneos do Futebol, Nossa Escola de Samba, to a lesser extent Memory of Cangaço), in the short Absolute majority by Leon Hirszman, among others.

From films before 1964, God and the Devil in the Land of the Sun It bursts in an unprecedented way the bubble of classical representation and the superior ascendant position of the narrative voice through which the other-popular is enunciated. There is a dubious position in the criticism of the alienation of banditry (cangaço) and messianism, characteristic of popular agency. Dried lives, which comes from a tradition prior to Cinema Novo, in a last drier breath of the tearful realism of the post-war era, is also set back in the intensity of the lessons it wants to teach, although without breaking.

In any case, production prior to 1964, or carried out immediately after the coup, has a knowledge that can (and should) embed, in its enunciation, objective (called 'scientific') knowledge about the mechanisms of alienation. The alienated people are taught a lesson in thinking that their consciousness only reifies representations of social value at work. The filmic narrative then embodies the possibility, through an artistic pedagogy (Bretchian or not, it is a debate of the time), of unveiling the universe in which the commodity fetish prevails.

2.

There is, however, one point that constitutes the core of the middle-class filmmaker's distrust of other-popular culture. It appears as an obstacle to the thought of alienation. It creates a barrier of intensity to the assertive propositional discourse of political praxis that reveals the map of reification through what it calls “ideology”. The power of the barrier-intensity hits the thought and there is no map, but a card that it itself exhausts when it constellates. The obstacle is the affections that explode 'from within' in intense pre-individual differential relations without convergence, sensations that multiply freely in the agency of the popular and which here we call 'trance'. Exalted states of expression evolve in the form of an unusual becoming, with fury. They surpass consciousness because they make matter out of it since their launch. They are free instinctual lines, before becoming individuated, so to speak.

Trance bypasses expository strategies that seek to think, through assertions and propositional dramatic speeches, about the alienated position of the subject of the story. Trance states – as present in the popular religious trance of Candomblé; in the trance of the goal and in the absorption of the enjoyment of expectations in football; in the sensorial enjoyment of Afro-Brazilian rhythms, among others – are approached in an explicitly negative perspective in the first encounter of the cinemanovista generation with the popular.

The inferior position of the other-popular morally justifies the denial of person of this otherness and opens space for thought as a lesson in pragmatics. The Rifles, Barravento, Absolute majority, Zé da Cachorra (Five Times Favela) follow the position that denies the power of otherness as becoming and affirms popular culture as a synthesis of alienation. Thus, the linear immanence of the intensity of the trance in the territory of popular agency is closed in cathexis and can depart for the figure of the popular other thought of as negation. This is also the case with the episodes Our Samba School (Brazil Truth)e Samba School, Joy of Living (Five Times Favela)(in both, alienation due to trance in samba); Football Underground e Garrincha Joy of the People (alienation due to football trance); Viramundo e Barravento (alienation due to trance in the popular Umbanda-Candomblé religion).

We find a clear manifestation of the ideology of that first moment in a text such as the 'Preliminary draft of the Manifesto of the Popular Center of Culture' by Carlos Estevam Martins, ideologist of the CPCs. Among other points (the text is not simplistic), it characterizes popular art as 'naive', a place of the heterogeneous multiplicity of the trance field that must be avoided, following the objective map of ideology, provided by the knowledge of alienation in the reification of merchandise. Despite all the conflicts and proximity between CPC and Cinema Novo, the horizon of Carlos Estevam Martins' speech runs deep in these first films by the young filmmakers.

It seeks to clarify the fetish and provides the compass for engagement with the knowledge of the dialectical rationality of historical materialism. It is sustained by the denial that arrives with 'forceps' in a stratum, that of the popular trance, which, in itself, is an affirmative power - and as such it opens up into a multiplicity of non-crystallized impulses and immanent intensities that escape the control of knowledge statement.

3.

earth in trance he wants to radically break with this layer of denial of the popular, although he shows that he still feels it in his flesh. What characterizes the film's narrative, opening the root of the transvaluative movement of Tropicalism, is the removal of gravity at the heart of the dilemma. Glauber wants to overcome guilt and joy is the proof of the nine. He proves that he does not accept yoke and rebels against the supplement of mercy and empathy. earth in trance takes another turn in the first position of conflict with bad conscience – exacerbated in God and the Devil in the Land of the Sun in the initial Antônio das Mortes – and returns on itself more sharply, in a screw movement that enters the paradigm of exasperation and is released into the counter-culture. 'Irrationalism', a very dear concept at the time, is explicitly expressed in earth in trance.

In 1967, the film reflects the outbreak of an ethical crisis that had, at its foundations, the exhaustion of the professorial ascendancy of praxis over alienation that managed to advance without being split by bad conscience. It opens an unprecedented fissure in the enlightenment of the other-popular. It is the mark of an event, perhaps a big one, if we want to talk about being in tune with a new episteme (to use a concept dear to philosophy that is contemporary to the film) that arrived in Brazil and began to dominate part of cinematographic production in the second half of the 20th century, until the first decade of the 21st century.

The idea of ​​a popular culture affirming free, unbridled intensity leaves behind the criticism of trance as an engine of reification, but carries with it the bad conscience about what was believed in the previous moment. The alienated people's denial is the central reason for their repentance and their inhabitation of the new territory is torn. After all, it's hard to live with the burden that heterogeneous knowledge about alienation could, one day, predominate. The opening, in the context of Tropicalism, will manage to swallow not only the popular trance in the joy of debauchery, but also mass culture itself and its cultural commodities – a development that goes beyond the limits of this essay.

4.

There is, therefore, an “ethical crisis” felt in key films of this period, which is expressed in earth in trance (1967) The challenge (Saraceni/1965) and the brave warrior (Dahl/1968). If earth in trance, at the front, opens the window to tropicalist fragmentation, while still feeling the winds of the 'past' of 1964 on your face, The challenge e The Brave Warrior These are works that speak more directly to the circumstances of the coup that are now behind us. We will have to wait for films like Macunaima (1969) by Joaquim Pedro de Andrade or Brazil Year 2000 (1968) by Walter Lima Jr so that, in Brazilian cinema, we can find a frontal dialogue, and without bad conscience, with tropicalist sensibility. Terra em Transe, The Challenge, The Brave Warrior, makes up the framework of what we call the 'second trinity' of Cinema Novo,[ii] works that have, in their feet of clay, the weight of an ethical crisis that torments them and that have at their core the disappointment with the belief in the engaged action of the other-popular.

These are films that show the drama of a middle-class boy facing an ideological context that was dear to him one day and suddenly disappears after 1964. They have, as Jean-Claude Bernardet noted pioneeringly in his contemporary book at this time, Brazil in Cinema Time (1967), the frank and sincere dialogue between the cinemanovista generation itself and the universe that surrounds it: post-pubescent young people from the urban middle class, with their doubts and dilemmas. The central character is no longer the distant truck driver (The Rifles), the withdrawer (Dried lives) or the bandit killer (God and the Devil in the Land of the Sun), becoming exasperated in the face of passivity and popular alienation, but the young man himself faced with the existential dilemmas that involve the political praxis that demands the acute historical moment.

The cultural universe of the other people is now seen from a different perspective. The critique of alienation moves to a new plane in which action can have the experience of an exacerbated and unconsolidated individuation. To be or not to be 'engaged' is being left behind as the driving force behind the crisis of conscience that surrounds films, although it still vibrates strongly in this second wind of Cinema Novo. earth in trance is the greatest expression of the process of new split action, a moment when pre-1964 certainties are increasingly distant and the fragmentary outbreak of 1968 (“super cool splinters over Copacabana”), of tropicalism, armed struggle, counter-culture, from exasperated enjoyment, emerge in the poet's sensitivity. In a section that brings a last existentialist breath, the sentimental education of the young protagonist who is torn apart by the intensity carved into the irremediable fissure of difference is discussed.

Paulo Martins is a kind of tropical Hamlet. What moves him is guilt and its related affect is bad conscience. It is not, therefore, a question of resentment, as some who transfer historical furniture that is out of place here to cinema would like. The enlightened middle class that created Cinema Novo does not, and cannot, resent the exploitation of the people, insofar as they benefit from it as a class. The opposite could be true, but the people, the popular classes, did not make cinema at the time (cinema is an art strongly linked to sophisticated technological mastery and financial resources). The predominant affect in fiction (and also in documentaries) of the main movement in the history of Brazilian Cinema (and national production in the second half of the 20th/early 21st century) is, therefore, bad conscience and guilt and not resentment.

5.

In 1966, Glauber Rocha began producing earth in trance, right after filming the short Maranhao 66, about the election of José Sarney to the government of Maranhão. The director states that he spent six months between the start of filming earth in trance and the first copy. The film is narrated in flashback starting with the death of Paulo Martins (Jardel Filho), who deliriously recalls his past existence. Poet and political activist, Paulo hesitates among the political forces in Eldorado that compete for his support. On the one hand Porfírio Diaz (Paulo Autran), a right-wing populist leader with whom Paulo was linked in his youth; on the other, Felipe Vieira (José Lewgoy), a leader with leftist tones to whom Paulo is attracted by Sara (Glauce Rocha), a communist militant. There is also the figure of media power, embodied by Júlio Fuentes (Paulo Gracindo). Between Vieira and Diaz, Martins must deal with popular leaders and the people themselves, whose manifestations escape his expectations and seem to be a hindrance to his certainties.

At the time of its release earth in trance was criticized for not situating himself in a clear and didactic way in relation to the social forces he figures in, when presenting the movement of history. The film brings to mind the clash with the popular other as an expression of a malaise. It is stuck dryly, directly, without stabilizing an exit path in redemptive modalities such as catharsis through pity.

earth in trance It can be seen as a synthesis of the dilemmas of the cinemanova generation. It is his great moment, his operatic moment, when the breath has the density to reach the tone of dramatic exaltation in contact with great History and penetrates it with ease and naturalness. Existential oscillations that were previously in their infancy acquire density for a qualitative leap and achieve their figuration in tragedy. The character Paulo Martins is the direct crystallization of this action, a rare character in our filmography due to the ease with which he gains density to escape from the mundane everyday life to the extreme moment – ​​'the bloody cosmos', as he himself defines it.

After Earth trance, others will try to imitate the traffic, but few will make it successfully. In the following years, Brazilian cinema seems to be flooded with little 'Paulo Martins' struggling to leave life and enter history, but the leap is fragile and the artificiality of the movement becomes apparent.

Paulo Martins has a great torment, a great guilt that he carries on his back and runs through the film like furniture: he, deep down, despises the people and their passivity, their servility, “their blood without vigor”, as he says at a certain point. It is a contempt that appears following the beginning, when he confronts a peasant leader, reproaching him for being “so cowardly, so servile” and defines the 'popular other' as “always weak people, weak and afraid people”.

The expression of the other-popular as 'alienated' here no longer has critical mass and expands amorphously, as we have been analyzing. It opens Glauber Rocha's work into an abyss and places it on a new dramatic level, within which he will later advance in his mature filmography. The dilemma due to the contempt of the popular other, in the film, becomes more acute by the murder of the peasant who had provoked Paulo Martins' nausea due to his weakness and passivity.

The protagonist feels guilty, but is not willing to deal with this feeling in the mode of passive affection, to purge it in compassion. He actively creates, in the contradiction, a climax of exasperation. The result, in the fictional universe, is that Paulo Martins abandons Vieira, the left-wing populist leader in the province, and returns to nights of orgies and pleasures in the urban capital of Alecrim. Below is a key sequence of earth in trance, in which failed engagement through guilt and nausea return.

The narrative voice, pretending to be a report or newsreel, is isolated from the flow of the diegesis with the sign: “Meeting of a leader with the people”. The highlighted 'encounter' serves to show the protagonist's relationship with a second man of the people. The reason for the sequence is to synthesize the tearing and self-flagellation of Paulo Martins who can no longer bring together, in his inner experience, the affection of empathy with the 'popular other'. Empathy that his conscience, and the society that surrounds him, demand and that Glauber has the courage to appear in all the rawness such as doubt and denial.

Sara, a communist activist and companion of Paulo Martins, wants to escape the view of the people as alienated agents and prove that there is something different. She turns in desperation to the protagonist tormented by malaise, wanting to rid him of his doubts and nausea: “why, why do you immerse yourself in this disorder?”, she states in this key moment of the film. She then removes a union leader from the middle of the confusion, Jerônimo (José Marinho), insistently asking him to 'speak'. A communist militant, Sara's companion, makes room for Jerônimo's speech by strafing the air. At this point, the popular trance and uproar cease. Silence takes place to listen to Jerônimo. The authentic popular leadership, the 'other-people', the popular character, begins his speech: “[I'm] in the class struggle […] everything is wrong, I really don't know what to do, the best thing is to wait for the order of the president.”

The situation is embarrassing, the image of the submissive and cowardly people, from which Sara wanted to escape by giving the floor to Jerônimo, becomes evident and reaffirms itself. The film's representation of the unionized 'people' is caricatured. Paulo Martins' inner demons surface again. Unable to bear the display of submission, he advances towards Jerômino and covers his mouth with his hand. Looking fixedly at the camera, he addresses the viewer directly (piercing the universe of fiction), to pronounce the key phrase of the film that caused a lot of repercussion at the time: “you see what the people are, an imbecile, an illiterate , a depoliticized one – have you ever thought about Jerônimo in power?” His voice is slow and serious, the last sentence is pronounced gutturally.

Immediately the trance, with loud drumming and people dancing samba, returns at full volume and speed, surrounding the characters. Another popular figure emerges, ascending in a quick montage that takes a second popular character from bottom to top in three successive shots. An authentic 'man of the people' (played by Flávio Migliaccio) manages to assert himself in the confusion and expresses his desire to speak. He uncovers the union leader’s mouth, taking Paulo Martins’ hand and asking for “doctors’ leave”. He then says, with a shy face, that “Mr. Jerônimo makes our politics, but it’s not the people, I’m the people, I have seven children and have nowhere to live.”

Everyone falls silent to listen to this second 'man of the people' in the sequence, but as soon as he finishes the reaction is immediate. He is shouted at as an 'extremist'. The simple 'man of the people', who is not a union member, but has the flesh, voice and body of the people, ends up dead soon after, with a revolver in his mouth and his eyes closed. The reaction to the manifestation of this 'man of the people', also humble and passive, takes the narrative back to Paulo Martins, who sinks into another of his “plunges into existential disorder”, looking around in exasperation. He wonders about the 'trance of mystics' and is surrounded by the aggressive screams of communist militants, close to Sara, who want more action from him.

The cries of 'your political irresponsibility' and 'your anarchism', or even 'your reactionary theories', are uttered in your direction. They appear in the film as the speech of political activists from the committed left. They summarize the type of demand that tears apart Paulo's conscience, which lost the value scale between nausea, indifference and bad conscience – a synthesis of the ideological context in which an entire generation is now immersed. It is the second death of a man of the people (in addition to the peasant at the beginning) that falls to Paulo Martins, his fault.

There is in him, Paulo Martins, a kind of strange phenomenological retreat from which he looks and in which he manages to establish himself above the chaos, on a surface that limits and freezes sensations and affections. He cannot – nor does he want – overcome the distance that keeps him averse to the cultural universe of the popular other and his way of being. He does not understand them, he does not see a challenge in wanting to understand them, nor does he allow himself an egoic return in the satisfaction of catharsis in compassion.

It wants to exercise its power, its will to action, but the passivity of the other people blocks its agency. To the same extent that it needs the people to have its demand for action satisfied, this involves it in an impossible praxis and therefore agonizes in a whirlwind. It also foresees the fallacy of the simplest dilemmas of the demands of praxis, as charged by political activists (those who, in fiction, accuse their 'political irresponsibility' and 'anarchism').

In the final shot of the film, he will still appear with weapons in hand, fading into the distance, with the sound of epic music. But it is the memory that moves the diegesis and that takes him there, to the weapons, not the logical or consequent chain of the action engaged. Paulo Martins's existentialist doubts to make the action unfold do not conflate in the brilliant mode of a praxis (as the end of The challenge), and this is what causes astonishment and controversy in the film's reception.

There's a certain 'boredom' by asserting their 'freedom' in the 'situation' of weapons and war. Thus, the demands of Sara and her companions are not reflected, leaving space for exasperated melancholy and, in another key, an exaltation that borders on debauchery. The impossibility of meeting within a closure of the people-unity also inaugurates, historically, the wide avenue that leads to the fast, smooth and fragmented sensibility of the Tropicalista flow.

6.

The people's denial by Paulo Martins has a depth of guilt equivalent to that which nourishes the Christian denial of the son to the Father, on the cross. Negativity forms the vortex of an existential whirlwind that, by demanding a synthesis that is not complete, impedes the experience of political action. Unable to escape the self-flagellation of guilt for having supported popular culture as alienated (football, samba, Candomblé), he is also unable to satisfy himself with the recovery of his ego through commiseration. The libertarian explosion of tropicalism is established in this crack, in this decalation, which suddenly turns the energy of free affection into a drive vibrating without territory.

In the process, consciousness fails to anchor an organizational plan. From the accusation of “political irresponsibility” and “irrationality” comes the next step that Glauber Rocha takes, in 1971, on the path of the manifesto known as “Eztetyka of the dream”.[iii] In this text we already have Glauber from a later phase, who dismisses the demands of 'responsibility' that surround the ideology of reification knowledge, carried by the instrumental reason of enlightened engagement. He then remorselessly assumes the power of drives that have not yet been individualized, in the position of agency that he calls “cosmic integration”, displacing the thought of instrumental reason over popular alienation: “(in) the continuous existence of revolutionary art in the Third World […] O People is the myth of the bourgeoisie. The reason of the people becomes the reason of the bourgeoisie over the people.”[iv]

The people are the myth of the bourgeoisie when agency and reason converge in the discourse of engagement. And it is a good whip to nourish the retroaction of redemption in the form of catharsis through pity. There is an opium of the self that demands the scourge and thus opens up in the stabilizing synthesis of responsibility. We are here at the core of Paulo Martins' exasperations. It brings the impossibility of affirming power when carrying the guilt for the Dionysian-popular Christ that, Glauber himself, had denied in Barravento and also, to another extent, oscillated in God and the Devil in the Land of the Sun. Cross that appears explicitly in The Dragon of Evil against the Holy Warrior and explodes through the multiplication of the Christs of age of earth, following the maxim of Zarathustra's Nietzschean Christ: “Dionysius crucified” (and no longer “Dionysius against the crucified”).

Em The Dragon of Evil, the crucifixion in the caatinga of the popular cangaceiro, with his extended slow death, appears as an appropriate figuration of the purgation deserved by Antônio das Mortes. It is he, Antônio das Mortes, who goes through the film guilty and crestfallen for having, in such a way, previously bargained for the appreciation of popular expression. It is also the reason for the intellectual/professor (Othon Bastos) of The Dragon of Evil (kind of like Paulo Martins resolved), get inspired and take action, take up arms, which ends up being effective, although I always retort. We are dealing with oscillating modes of individuation and drives in lines of flight, a movement that fully radiates in Glauber's late work.

The trajectory brings hardships that want to be, progressively, left behind. The formulation is clear and, already in Glauber's 'Eztetyka do Sonho', from 1971, rationality does not emerge in the people or from the people, but is only the engaged form (the articulated rationalist discourse) of the bourgeoisie when exercising its power over the people . The positive valorization of the instinctual force of trance that we find in 'Eztetyka' is highlighted in this text in itself, as it had not been (nor could it have been) in Barravento.

The negative view of trance culture in Candomblé, as it appears in this film, shows in perspective how the dominant sensitivity of Glauber's work evolved. It is useless to try to perfect the movement of free intensity when it does not yet exist, but it corresponds to the analyst's desire to transfer the convictions. Despite the positive valuation today of the image of the free power of drives (the dance shots and sound of atabaques, for example), this is not configured in the historical moment and in the film's mode Barravento, which is composed in the universe of assertive reason converging and stabilizing affections. It is a position that Glauber will fully breathe only in the exile features and, in particular, in his last film (Age of the Earth, 1980) and which appears outlined in a text written in January 1971 when, on a visit to Columbia University/New York, he made the communication 'Eztetyka do Sonho'.

Disbelief in the lack of perspectives of existence-engagement has, therefore, in earth in trance its inaugural moment and its pioneering figure in Brazilian arts. It will be followed in progressive radicality in the following years, mainly from December 1968. It is the brief and extreme era of Cinema Marginal (Rogério Sganzerla, Júlio Bressane, Andrea Tonacci, Carlos Reichenbach, Luiz Rosemberg, Neville d'Almeida, Elizeu Visconti, Geraldo Veloso and others) and the third breath of Cinema Novo, which Glauber inaugurated with Cancer followed by The Dragon of Evil against the Holy Warrior, in addition to the treble The Gods and the Dead (War); The inheritors (Diegues); Pindorama (Jabor); Good Friday, Hallelujah Saturday (Hirszman); Hunger for Love (Nelson Pereira); Who is Beta? (also Nelson), among others.

The horizon is now open to radical experiences that oscillate between enjoyment, debauchery and Rabelaisian debauchery, on the one hand; and the scream of agony, the representation of unmeasured horror, the 'getting into trouble', the forms of the animalistic, the scatological and the abjection, on the other. In reality, they are two sides of the same coin that point to a terminal historical moment. In the abstract pre-figuration of the meaningless childish babbling of repetition, in the disproportionate power of non-human horror, in the animalistic becoming, the radicality of these works expresses the struggle to overcome bad conscience, fascist violence and the paranoia of torture, seeing, in the image of the flow that the 'angel was born' (baroque angel of enjoyment and horror). Few years have passed since the pre-1964 illusions, but a lot has happened in this era of extremes.

*Fernao Pessoa Ramos He is a professor at the Unicamp Arts Institute. He is co-author, among other books, of New History of Brazilian Cinema (Ed. SESC).

Modified version of article posted in 2017 on magazine February.

Notes


[I] Intuiting the proximity of the dilemma, the contradictions of the presence of the universe of popular music in high culture are a central theme of Nelson Pereira dos Santos' second feature film, North Zone River/ 1957.

[ii] See Ramos, Fernão Pessoa. 'Cinema Novo/Cinema Marginal, between enjoyment and exasperation' IN Ramos, Fernão Pessoa; Schvarzman Sheila. New History of Brazilian Cinema. SP, Ed. Sesc, 2018 (see)

[iii] Glauber Rocha, New Cinema Revolution. São Paulo, Cosac Naify, 2004. pp. 248-251.

[iv] Idem, “Eztetyka of the dream”, New Cinema Revolution, P. 249.


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