Juan Isidro Jimenes Grullón

Juan Isidro Jimenes Grullón/ Art by Marcelo Lima Guimarães
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By YURI MARTINS-FONTES & MARCELO ROBERTO DIAS*

Entry from the “Dictionary of Marxism in America”

Life and political praxis

Juan Isidro Jimenes Grullón (1903-1983) was born in the capital of the Dominican Republic, member of a wealthy family from the exporting commercial class, which had participated in the process of formation of the Dominican nation. His father was José Manuel Jimenes Domínguez; his mother, Maria Filomena Grullón Ricardo.

He attended primary and secondary school in São Domingos, graduating in Humanities. In the meantime, at the age of 13, Jimenes Grullón saw his country being invaded by the United States, an oppressive context that he would experience for almost a decade (1916-1924).

At the age of 20, he joined the Associationón Literaria Plus-Ultra, created in 1921, led by Manuel Arturo Peña Batlle (future historian and diplomat) and whose members would come to play a prominent role in Dominican nationalist politics. During these times, he entered the Law course at University of Santo Domingo, but he would soon abandon it, due to his passion for Philosophy. His family – traditionally bourgeois – then pressured him to pursue a career that would provide him with a good salary, which would lead him to travel to Europe in 1923.

During the trip, he visited Germany and, finally, settled in France, where he studied Medicine. Living in Paris, in 1926 he published a book of prose poems. In addition to his studies and contacts with other cultures, his stay on the European continent was a time in which he grasped the central ideas of historical materialism, participating in Latin American intellectual circles that were strengthened and multiplied with the victories of the Russian Revolution. He established important relationships there, having met intellectuals and politicians who would influence his thinking, such as the Spaniard José Ortega y Gasset and the Mexican José Vasconcelos (who had a prominent political role after the Mexican Revolution, as first secretary of Public Education).

In 1929, Jimenes Grullón received his medical degree in Paris, with the work Plan of'anti-palud struggle organizationéuropean [Organization plan for combating malaria], contributing to research into one of the most serious public health problems in the world (which mainly affects poorer populations and for which the industry has never developed a satisfactory vaccine).

Having graduated, he returned to his country, going to live in the northern city of Santiago de los Caballeros, the second Dominican metropolis, where, in addition to practicing medicine, he dedicated himself to political and cultural activities. However, shortly after his return, an episode occurred that would define the trajectory of the Marxist and the Dominican Republic: the coup d'état perpetrated in 1930 by General Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, which plunged the country into three decades of dictatorial government. During the period known as trujillismo, several politicians, intellectuals, socialists and other members of dissent would be repressed and forced into exile. Given the situation, despite the Marxist conceptions that were consolidated in his thinking, Jimenes Grullón assessed that under those circumstances it would not be possible to organize a direct fight for socialism – a position that would lead him to distance himself from the socialist collective Associationón of Instruccióny Socorro de Obreros y Campesinos (AISOC).

In the early years of the dictatorship, Santiago de los Caballeros became a center of political and cultural resistance to the regime; In the midst of such turmoil, Jimenes Grullón became involved in the project Sociedad Literaria y Cultural Amantes de la Luz – created to boost the social and economic development of the city, through literacy activities and scientific and cultural dissemination –, reaching its presidency. At the time, the fight for the reform of Dominican higher education was gaining strength, echoing throughout the country the movement for university reform which, after demonstrations led by Argentine students (started in 1918, in Córdoba), spread across the continent. It was in this context that, in 1932, Jimenes Grullón participated – alongside his cousin, the poet Domingo Moreno Jimenes – in the founding of the Universidad Popular y Libre del Cibao, an educational experiment that aimed at political formation and rapprochement between workers and peasants.

As the Trujillo regime tightened, repressing political and cultural organizations, the resistance became organized. In 1934, however, an opposition conspiracy was discovered that sought to eliminate the tyrant, an armed operation in which Jimenes Grullón was involved. The Marxist was then arrested and tortured, as he would later report in A gestapo in America (1946), spending months in the San Gregorio de Nigua prison, until he was exiled the following year.

Throughout his extensive period of exile, which would last 26 years, Jimenes Grullón traveled through countries in the region, living in Puerto Rico, Venezuela, the United States and especially Cuba, where he settled more steadily. Due to his intellectual and professional training and resourcefulness as a political organizer, in 1935 he was invited to go to the United States, where he became a member of the Dominican resistance that had established itself in New York. During the trip, in addition to building bonds with other exiles, he gave lectures and published political articles in several periodicals, defending a revolutionary policy in contrast to the liberal idealism that affected many of his fellow countrymen in exile. The following year, he went to live in Havana, where his second book, the collection of essays Let's fight for our América (1936)

In mid-1938, recommended by the writer and essayist Juan Bosch (his then comrade in the Dominican resistance), Jimenes Grullón traveled to Puerto Rico to give lectures as part of a project organized by the Associationón of Graduate Women da University of Puerto Rico. At this event, he met the Puerto Rican poet Julia de Burgos, an artist engaged in the fight for her nation's independence, who presented him with her poetic work, enchanting him. An intense relationship began, marked by poetry, politics and bohemia, which would last around two years. Jimenes Grullón then went to live on the Puerto Rican island, having worked as a family doctor – visiting communities in the interior of the country –, in addition to remaining engaged in the anti-trujillist struggle.

The following year, he moved again to Cuba – a country where many exiles who opposed Trujillo lived. During these times, alongside other revolutionaries – such as Juan Bosch and Ángel Miolán – he came into contact with the communists of Communist Revolutionary Union (name assumed by the former Communist Party of Cuba, upon being legalized), which shortly afterwards would become the Popular Socialist Party. Still in 1939, alongside a dozen comrades, Jimenes Grullón founded the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), an organization that, despite remaining active since exile, would have a strong role in the fight for political freedom in its country, both training and organizing militants and directly combating the dictatorship. During the following decades, several armed expeditions, organized by the PRD and other opposition groups established abroad, attempted to put an end to the Dominican dictatorship.

In the heat of the confrontations against Trujillo, in 1940, Jimenes Grullón published in Havana his first book with a Marxist interpretation of Dominican history, La RepúDominican Bible: anáanalysis of your past and present, work in which he dealt with socio-historical aspects that led the country to dictatorship, as well as the necessary construction of a Dominican socialist program, which he called “national-revolutionary”.

A year later, while visiting the house of poet Manuel Navarro Luna (in Manzanillo, Cuba), he met Cuban Amada Maria Sabater Rosales, whom he married in 1944 and had two children.

In 1946, the Marxist began to collaborate with the United Liberaci Frontón Dominican, a group of exiles formed from a congress held in University of Havana, when the insurgents decided to unify their fight.

During his extensive exile in the Americas, Jimenes Grullón traveled a lot, and along the way he taught at some institutions, such as the Faculty of Medicine from Villa Clara (Santa Clara, Cuba), in the 1940s; and the Faculty of Medicine da Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela), in the 1950s – times in which he was able to dedicate himself firmly to the study of Marxism and writing.

In the mid-1950s, he returned to settle in Cuba, becoming part of the leadership of the Dominican Liberation Movement, an organization of exiles that, in 1959, with the support of Fidel Castro's new revolutionary government, promoted the Junio's Expedition, in which around 150 Dominican guerrillas (supported by a few dozen Cubans and Venezuelans), traveling by air and sea, left Cuban lands for the Dominican Republic, first landing in Constanza (on June 14) and then disembarking in Maimón and Estero Hondo (June 20). Although the incursion was unsuccessful (and largely exterminated), due to sabotage and bad weather, it had the merit of igniting the spirits of the Dominican resistance – which, two years later, in a new action, machine-gunned Trujillo, putting put an end to his regime of horror.

At the end of 1961 – six months after the tyrant's death – Jimenes Grullón was finally able to return to his country. As soon as he arrived, he entered legal political life, founding the National Social Democratic Alliance, the party for which he would run for president the following year.

However, in the 1962 elections, Jimenes Grullón was defeated by Juan Bosch – his former fighting partner, now a political rival. By this time, Juan Bosch had moved away from radical political proposals and even the anti-imperialist movement, so that, in 1963, when he became the first Dominican leader elected after the dictatorship, his excessively conciliatory government would begin to suffer systematic opposition. also by socialists.

Exalted by political rivalry, Jimenes Grullón joined the critics of the new president; although with such a position he sought to defend his revolutionary perspective, by further eroding the government, the Marxist ended up, unintentionally, favoring the action of the coup oligarchy. After just seven months, Bosch was deposed in a reactionary military coup. With a view to giving greater legitimacy to the regime that was being created, members of Jimenes Grullón's party were invited to form part of the supposed coalition led by conservatives – and some even held government positions. Faced with this scenario, Jimenes Grullón would later regret his gesture, publicly recognizing it as his great “political mistake”.

As a consequence of the new coup d'état, in 1965 a civil war broke out in the Dominican Republic that would last five months; the call April Revolution began when civilian and military supporters of deposed president Juan Bosch overthrew the coup government of Donald Reid Cabral. With the escalation of the conflict, the United States invaded the country again, this time under the banner of the Organization of American States (OAS), and would only withdraw its troops (40 thousand soldiers) the following year, when new elections were held – won by the Christian-liberal Joaquín Balaguer.

After the chaos of the war, Jimenes Grullón, who had already had experience as an educator in other countries in America, would dedicate himself to teaching and writing his works; In 1966, he became a professor of sociology and history at the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (UASD), since then producing some of his most important books in the field of Marxist criticism.

In 1968, Jimenes – who until then had been a Marxist not linked to any current – ​​declared himself a defender of “Marxism-Leninism”, assessing that his previous positions had been marked by “idealism”. This year, he began to dedicate himself intensely to preparing Dominican political sociology: 1844-1966 – published in three volumes (which began to be published six years later).

In addition to this work, in his last years, he remained very active in political activism, dedicating himself to journalistic activity and essay production; Among his last books (published in the 1970s) it also stands out Latin America and the socialist revolution (1971)

Juan Isidro Jimenes Grullón died in August 1983, aged 80, in São Domingos.

Contributions to Marxism

With an existence marked by militancy – intellectual and armed – and exile (in which he spent a third of his life), Juan Isidro Jimenes Grullón was a poet, doctor, teacher, guerrilla fighter, historian and philosopher. Author of a broad and dense work, his thought is a landmark in critical historiography and the philosophy of Dominican praxis, being the pioneer in developing a historical materialist interpretation of his nation.

In his formative stage as a Marxist, which lasted until the 1940s, his political perspective was guided by a stance he called “national-revolutionary” or “populist”. His first analyzes of national history, then marked by a certain “idealism” (as he himself would later accuse) and polemicism, broke with the conservative “traditional” historiographical model (produced by liberal authors), inaugurating the current that he called “scientific historiography ”.

As a popular educator, he laid the foundations of the autonomous university movement in the Dominican Republic. In this sense, in his historical interpretation it is worth highlighting the attention he dedicated to the general synthesis of events – a format appropriate to his pedagogical-political intention. By seeking to understand the various forces and events that shaped and hindered Dominican social development, Jimenes Grullón – with erudition, abundant data and fluid writing – refuted the liberal narrative about the formation of his country. Polemicizing the superficial biases that propagated their ideological class beliefs, their central objective was the education and consequent engagement of new generations, with a view to organizing the bases that would promote the transformation of society. In his words, his desire was to dedicate himself to political training work that was “essentially useful to youth”.

During his European stay in the 1920s, studying medicine in Paris, Jimenes came into contact with Marxism, becoming close to several communist circles that were forming, driven by the vigor of the Russian Revolution. However, upon returning to his country, he was faced with a reality that was foreign to the Marxist philosophical and humanistic development that had emerged since the XNUMXth century and was now being consolidated in the world with the first revolutionary political experiences: unlike neighboring nations, in the Dominican Republic there were no a sufficiently organized socialist movement. This delay was seen by the author as a typical Dominican characteristic, derived from the small size of the country and the peculiarities of the working class: a mostly rural society in which proletarianization was still scarce.

Using concepts from Marxism, among other philosophical and scientific influences, his initial analysis of the Dominican national question led him to consider that the immediate task of the revolutionaries should be the elimination of “caudilhismo” – an already decadent government system that, attached to the “machine corrupting” state, kept the population subjected to conditions of a colonial nature, in a situation of ignorance about their own interests and rights: the current model of “agrarian capitalism” delayed the development of the national project. However, he observed that, although such socio-political conformation generated pauperization of the masses, the situation had not led to the weakening of small peasant property, which denoted an obstacle to the process of capitalist consolidation, a factor that he assessed as a possible advantage for social transformation.

Jimenes Grullón’s national-revolutionary proposal – exposed in The Dominican Republic: analysis of its past and present (1940), the first book that presented a materialist interpretation of the national reality – was based on the conception that the small peasantry was a central class for the Dominican revolution. In a country with a large rural majority, revolutionary politics should be aimed at maintaining the ancestral order that still exists, which could serve as the foundation of the new society. On the other hand, he understands that American imperialism was the strongest obstacle to the process of social revolution and must, therefore, be faced through a project of class alliances between peasants, workers and the urban petty bourgeoisie.

Even though in this work the Dominican Marxist makes no reference to Russian “populists” (narodniks), his ideas to a certain extent resemble theirs – who believed that, in the still markedly rural reality of Russia, socialism could be built based on peasant communities (chrism). It is worth highlighting here that this is also the understanding of Karl Marx, who, in correspondence with the Russian populist Vera Zasulitch, when questioned about it, stated that the process of historical transformation that he had analyzed inThe capital consisted of an analysis of a concrete, particular historical case, drawn up based on industrially advanced countries, and which should not, therefore, be understood as a single path or “historical fatality”, emphasizing that the Russian struggle, at the same time anti-capitalist and anti-feudal, it could indeed – as other circumstances evolve – lead its people to build a new society on the collectivist foundations of the original communities.

Only later, at the end of the 1950s, Jimenes Grullón's thinking would become more radical – which is made clear in the content of the work The Dominican Republic: a fiction (1965). According to the author, who at this time publicly declared himself a supporter of “Marxism-Leninism”, this change occurred thanks to an in-depth study of the works of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Vladimir Lenin. In this regard, it is worth noting that his experience as a teacher in Caribbean universities (between the 1940s and 1950s) was a period in which, despite his situation of exile, he was finally able to dedicate himself more systematically to studying and writing.

Furthermore, the transformation can be explained by some key factors. In the late 1930s, alongside Juan Bosch, he established close relations with Cuban communist militants; time when he also participated in the founding of Dominican Revolutionary Party (1939) – organization that, operating from exile, would intensify the armed struggle against Trujillo’s tyranny. Furthermore, another point to be highlighted is the worsening of the Dominican social conflict in the 1960s, when, after the fall of the dictatorship, the PRD (under the direction of Bosch, now Jimenes' political rival) moved away from radical positions, which they gained popular space, and even anti-imperialism; Such a return to idealist positions of revolutionary nationalism divided the socialists, opening the flank for the conservative backlash (which began with the reactionary coup of 1963, to soon lead to the civil war of 1965 and a new US invasion).

In the course of Jimenes Grullón's work, his philosophical foundations and perspectives also appear. In contrast to modern scientific trends, he defines his historical materialist position as one that understands nature and society in “a permanent process”, in which “what yesterday was is often hidden or visible in the impetus of what is today” – thus denoting the dialectical character of reality.

On the other hand, he rejects subjectivist existentialism (such as that of Ortega y Gasset, of whom he deeply criticizes). He affirms “practice” as one of the foundations for knowledge of reality; defends the idea that the “primary historical fact” is the community, the “social bond”, from which material conditions are established; which is the “economic cause” that conditions social development – ​​whilst recognizing that spiritual life, manifested in practical existence, generates socio-historical transformations, as historical evolution is a process of actions and reactions between the “material” and the “ ideal".

Regarding political philosophy, the Marxist rejects the Western myth of “pure democracy”, considering that in the capitalist economic structure there is a “liberal democracy that is becoming less liberal every day” and more distant from the “ideal”, which is not determined by “ will of the people”, but because of “ideological appetites” and interests of the bourgeoisie, the class “owner of power and economic privileges”.

Comment on the work

Jimenes Grullón was a prolific writer, having published more than two dozen books, in addition to numerous articles – of which we present some of the most relevant below. His work refuted traditional conservative Dominican historiography, using broad erudition. Initially influenced by thinkers such as Berkeley, Spinoza, Kant and Hegel, he joined Marxism in the mid-1930s, although initially with a perspective still marked by idealism; In the 1950s, after his many political experiences and having dedicated himself to a more in-depth study of the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin, he began to claim himself as a Marxist-Leninist.

His first book, written while studying medicine in Europe, was Backwater waters (Paris: Editorial Excelsior, 1926), collection of prose poems, marked by a romantic-symbolist character.

Ten years later, when he was already living in exile, he published his first essay in Cuba: Let us fight for our America (Havana: Empresa Editora de Publicaciones, 1936), a collection of political texts aimed at “Latin American youth”, including an essay on native American culture. In the book, he also demonstrates the romantic verve of the previous work, in addition to certain concepts of positivist social philosophy.

Shortly afterwards, it came to light Contemporary political ideas and doctrines (San Juan: Talleres Tipográficas Casa Baldrich, 1939), compilation of lectures he gave at the University of Puerto Rico. Based on a Marxist perspective – although the influence of Hegel's philosophy of history is noted – and with a clear appreciation for Bolshevik socialism, Jimenes discusses concepts such as “democracy”, “reform”, “socialism”, “communism”, “class struggle ”, “surplus value”, “historical materialism”, “fascism” and “Nazism”, among other themes, such as the Mexican Revolution.

The following year, Jimenes Grullón released what would be his first major work: The Dominican Republic: analysis of your past and present (Havana: Arellano, 1940), in which he analyzes the history of his country from a Marxist perspective. Divided into five parts, the work develops political, economic, social and cultural aspects – with a national-revolutionary and pedagogical bias at the same time –, presenting the main events and historical characteristics that led to the Trujillista tragedy and affirming the urgency of workers organize themselves in order to build their own socialist program for their nation. The proposed discussions support the author's positions against the dominant Dominican intellectual mentality of the period; according to him, the transformative ideals of the Russian Revolution should serve as parameters for discussing and rethinking the country.

In the first part, “Gérmen y tierra”, it focuses on the analysis of nature and the autochthonous population that lived on Hispaniola Island, as well as the consequences of colonization over the years of exploration of the land. In the second part, “Brote y crecimiento”, the beginnings of the consolidation of the Spanish colonialist model are explained, through the installation of administrative, legal and economic structures, until the process of political independence, also analyzing the effects of liberalism and imperialism. The third part, “Naufragio y port”, shows the interventionism of the US army and the regaining of sovereignty. In the fourth, “La era tenebrosa”, the political and economic administration during the Trujillo dictatorship is discussed. Finally, the fifth part, “Síntesis y camino”, is dedicated to making a general assessment of the topics discussed, bringing proposals for a transformation of Dominican society.

Em A gestapo in America: life, torture, agony and death of political prisoners under the tyranny of Trujillo (Havana: Editorial Lex, 1946) the Marxist makes one of the first denunciations to the world of the extreme violence experienced by his people under the dictatorship. Furthermore, he exposes in the work an interesting scheme of how his thinking evolved: in adolescence, a priori-Kantian; in his youth, experimentalist, empiricist; in the mid-1930s, idealistic or platonic; then, the skeptical, transitional period, arising from his contact with the work of thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas, Berkeley, Spinoza and Hegel; and finally the Marxist stage, which he would embrace ever since – during which he sought to transcend his idealistic conceptions, starting to believe in the “forces of human overcoming”. 

Six Cuban poets: apologetic essays (Havana: Editorial Cromos, 1954) is a work of literary criticism in which the author examines the aesthetics and reflects on the social function of the poetry of Regino Botti, María Luisa Milanés, Manuel Navarro Luna, Nicolás Guillén, Dulce María Loynaz and Eugenio Florit .

On the edge of Ortega y Gasset: criticism of 'The theme of our time' (Havana: Puentes Grandes, 1957) is the first volume of the work – which had the other volumes published in 1959, in Venezuela: Along the margins of Ortega y Gasset: criticism of 'Around Galileo'; is On the shores of Ortega y Gasset: criticism of 'La rebellion de las masses' (Mérida: Univ. de los Andes). In the trilogy, based on the Engelsian philosophical conception of Marxism, Jimenes carries out a reflection exercise on several of the paradigms put forward by the Spanish author, demonstrating knowledge (and distance) from his “subjectivist” ideas. Understanding that the solidity of a philosophy is based on the ability to understand and propose solutions to the core problems of life, he comes to the conclusion that Ortega was not exactly a “philosopher”, but rather a “literate”.

At this time, it is also worth mentioning the article “Análisis de un libro notable: 'Redescubrimiento de Dios'” (Santa Clara, Islands Magazine, Sep.-Dec. 1958), philosophical examination of the work of García Bárcena, in which the importance of the advent of a new critical spirituality is discussed.

In a new philosophical foray, the book The philosophy of José Martí (Santa Clara: Univ. Central de las Villas, 1960) deals with the historical importance and current relevance of Martin's thought, showing that, in his poetic and essayistic work, Martí dealt with central problems of philosophy, such as: the relationship between man and nature; existence and death; in addition to spiritual, ethical and political issues.

Another of the most expressive works of Jimenes Grullón is The Dominican Republic: a fiction (Mérida: Talleres Grãos Universitarios, 1965). In this book, he expands the discussions of his historical materialist analysis of 1940, reinterpreting the evolution of his country from a Leninist perspective. The book is organized into three parts. In the first, “La expresión politica”, defends the idea that there was no effective participation of the population in politics after independence, with all power remaining in the hands of the ruling class. In “The economic-social expression”, he offers a historical interpretation of the country from a popular and social development perspective. Finally, in “La expresión spiritual”, he deals with the consequences of the imposition of the European theological-feudal world conception on the Americas, a spirituality that promotes a perception of reality in favor of the colonizer, obstructing cultural and social advances of their own.

in your book Medicine and culture (Mérida: Universidad de los Andes, 1961), resumes philosophical reflections: he considers that science preceded philosophy as a form of knowledge; that thought, “even in its most abstract forms”, constitutes a “reflection of reality” (including Mathematics); and, highlighting the Marxist principle of praxis, he states that the human being, “as a social entity”, is both “goal” and “instrument of the goal”.

Yes, Dialectical biology (Mérida: Univ. de los Andes, 1968) – work influenced by Anti-Dürhing, by Engels – is characterized by a scientific and epistemological effort through which he exposes his theory of “vital energy”, with a view to demonstrating that there are no “innate or beforehand”: “everything we think or feel obeys the dialectic between life and the external world”, being generated from the stimulus of the social environment.

Em Pedro Henríquez Ureña: reality and myth and other essays (São Domingos: Editorial Librería Dominicana, 1969), discusses the work of the journalist, philosopher and literary critic recognized as one of the great Dominican thinkers, addressing topics such as the European mentality that prevailed in the pre-colonial period and the process of destruction of culture and original identity.

The myth of the fathers of the homeland (S. Domingos: Cultural Dominicana, 1971) – book composed of articles published in 1969, in the magazine Now! – outlines a controversial debate about Dominican history. Anchored in a rigorous historical study, Jimenes states that the so-called “fathers of the country” did not have the political-historical importance attributed to them by traditional historiography.

In his last years, Jimenes Grullón remained quite active. One of his last and main works was the work in three volumes Dominican political sociology: 1844-1966 (São Domingos: Editora Taller, 1974; 1975; 1980); In it, he creates a synthesis of Dominican political history, seeking to eliminate the idealistic traits of the past and criticizing his previous thinking.

In the 1970s he also published: The Latin American university problem: roots, current features and revolutionary solutions (S. Domingos: Univ. Autón. de Santo Domingo, 1970); Latin America and the socialist revolution (S. Domingos: Cultural Dominicana, 1971), in which he demonstrates that “bourgeois democracy” is not in fact a democracia, but a “dictatorship of the bourgeoisie”, highlighting the objectives of the Latin American socialist revolution as agrarian reform and industrialization; John Bartlow Martin: un proconsul of the yanqui empire: answer to his book 'The Dominican Destiny' (Mérida: Edit. Universitaria de los Andes, 1977); It is Our false left (S. Domingos: Edit. Metropolitana, 1978) – in which he discusses how the economic model managed by the bourgeoisie prevents social transformations, criticizing the sectarianism of what he calls the “false left” and then defending the need to prepare the conditions that make the construction of communism possible.

Among his last writings, it is worth highlighting “Historia de nuestra historiografia”, an essay published in eight parts in the newspaper Listin Diario (from Oct. 22 to Nov. 18, 1975).

On the internet, texts by Jimenes Grullón can be found on portals such as: Ministry of Education of the Dominican Republic (ministeriodeeducacion.gob.do); Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (www.cervantesvirtual.com); It is Cielo Naranja Editions (www.cielonaranja.com).

*Yuri Martins-Fontes Professor and PhD in Economic History (USP/CNRS). Author, among other books, of Marx in America: the praxis of Caio Prado and Mariátegui (Mall). [https://amzn.to/3xI8JjL]

*Marcelo Roberto Dias He is a Portuguese language teacher and a PhD candidate in Education at USP.

Originally published on the portal Praxis Nucleus-USP.

References


AMERINGER, Charles. The Caribbean legion: patriots, politicians, soldiers of fortune (1946-1950). Philadelphia/USA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.

ARVELO, Alejandro. “Critical news surrounding the evolution of the philosophical thought of Juan Isidro Jimenes Grullón (1903-1983)”. In: MARTÍNEZ JIMÉNEZ (org). Dominican philosophy: past and present (volume I). São Domingos: Archivo General de la Nación, 2009.

CASSÁ, Roberto. “The emergence of critical historiography in Jiménes Grullón”. Clio, Jul.-Dec. 2003. Available: https://www.idg.org.do.

ECURED. “Juan Isidro Jimenez Grullón”. ecured, 2019. Available: www.ecured.cu.

FRANCO, Franklin. “Presentation”. In: Contemporary political ideas and doctrines. São Domingos: Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, 2007. Available: www.calameo.com.

GUADARRAMA, Pablo. Philosophical thought in Cuba in the twentieth century: 1900-1960. Havana: Editorial Universitaria Félix Varela. Disp: https://www.ensayistas.org.

MARTINS-FONTES L., Yuri. marx in america. São Paulo: Alameda/Fapesp, 2018.

PAULINO RAMOS, Alejandro. “Cultural groups at the beginning of the Trujillo dictatorship: 1930-1934”. History of the Dominican Republic. Available: historiarepublicadominicana.com.do.

RODRÍGUEZ, Amaury. “Some comments about Juan Isidro Jimenes Grullón”. Esendom: Culture and Conscience, 26 Apr. 2011. Disp.: https://esendom.com.


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