Karl Marx, by José Paulo Netto

Hans Hofmann, Untitled, Renate Series, Oil on canvas. 121,9 x 91,4 cm, 1965.
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By JÃOO ANTONIO DE PAULA*

“Presentation” of the newly released Marx biography.

In order to assess the importance and significance of the biography of Karl Marx that José Paulo Netto gives us, it will not be idle to recall the vicissitudes of the reception of Marxism in Brazil. It is through the contrast, through the comparison, between the first and precarious times of Marxism among us and the exceptional quality of José Paulo Netto's text that, even more, the great book that is being presented is highlighted. After all, it is not trivial that, here, in these today very sad tropics, an extraordinary biography of a superlatively studied author comes to light.

Among the many merits of José Paulo Netto's book, no less important is the double challenge he faced and overcame, namely: on the one hand, not having incurred in a sort of hagiographic, panegyric and rebarbative literature, and, on the other hand, , having a firm and consolidated position on the subject, that is, being “an unrepentant Marxist”, as he defines himself, having known how to avoid sectarianism and minor disputes in the name of the fair construction of the biography – and, why not say it, to do justice to his remarkable biographer.

Those who propose to contribute to full human emancipation, to the realization of freedom and equality, recognize in Marx an indispensable thinker for the construction of human humanity, for overcoming damaged life, for all. Jean-Paul Sartre said something like “Marxism is the unsurpassed philosophy of our time”; Before wanting to attribute to Marxism the perfect impossibility of explaining everything, the phrase asserts its unsurpassable centrality as a decisive instrument in the permanent quest both to understand capitalism and to contribute to its overcoming.

Thinking of Marxism as a monolithic, homogeneous, perfectly ready and finished reality, however, is far from expressing it at its best.

Take, at random, a partial balance of Marxisms, published in 1974 by J.-B. Fages: Introduction to the Diversity of Marxisms (Fages, 1974) [Introduction to the diversity of Marxisms]. In it, movements and interpretations inspired by Marx are discussed, in which appear, from the author's perspective: Lenin and the revolutionary initiative; Trotsky and the international revolution; Stalin and the bureaucratic system; Rosa Luxemburg and revolutionary passion; Lukács and the cultural revolution; Pannekoek and the ultra-left; Otto Bauer and the Slow Revolution; Gramsci and revolutionary humanism; Wilhelm Reich and Freudo-Marxism; Lefebvre and critical renewal; Althusser and the new reading of Marx; Mao Tsé-tung and the refoundation of man Despite being extensive, the reported list omitted several names and trends, such as the Frankfurt School and the Marxists of the Second International era: Kautsky, Bernstein, Plekhanov, Labriola. Moreover, other currents should be added to the list, such as Anglo-Saxon analytical Marxism, Italian Marxism, inspired by Galvano della Volpe, Latin American Marxism, Japanese Marxism, among others.

Fages is not being asked for what he did not seek to do, an exhaustive analysis of Marxisms. His strategy, bringing together great names and visions of Marx's thought, taken as conformers of trends, currents, schools, does not eliminate an important and remaining issue: the fact that there are marked differences, sometimes irreconcilable, between those who claim and claimed to be, legitimately or illegitimately, Marxists. In any case – and this is something I hope we have learned –, disagreements regarding the interpretation of the work of Marx-Engels or regarding the political application of his ideas do not have a universal and infallible measurement, they do not have an absolute appellate instance capable of establishing an unappealable judgment over disagreements, whether by mobilizing arguments of self-appointed authority, or by force of violence and interdiction. Therefore, Marxisms are condemned to plurality, and we must see this not as a source of problems, but as a heritage to be valued.

In this sense, it is with joy that the book by José Paulo Netto confirms the significant strength and maturity of Marxism in Brazil. It is not the case, in this presentation, to establish a distinction between Marxism, Marxology and Marxianism. It is of the order of intellectual honesty and good historiographic practice to seek to understand authors, works, ideas and movements in their contexts, in their possibilities, avoiding anachronisms that, in some cases, besides being unreasonable, betray prejudices and sectarianism.

Marx's biographer

José Paulo Netto was born in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, in 1947. The fact that he was born in that city cannot go unnoticed. It's just that Juiz de Fora gave Brazilian culture, among other significant names, two that stand out. Murilo Mendes, born in 1901, is not only one of the greatest Brazilian poets, but certainly the one most attuned to a visionary, surreal and disruptive poetics, which, in successive layers and tensions, is also erotic, libertarian and mystical. The other name that deserves to be highlighted is that of Pedro Nava, born in 1903, who, having had an important career as a doctor and researcher, showed an unusual talent as a visual artist and poet, being consecrated, from the 1970s onwards, not only as a one of the greatest Brazilian memoirists, but also one of the most renowned prose writers in our literature.

I don't know if José Paulo Netto, a man who traveled the world, "Oropa, France and Bahia", and much of Latin America, took to the rivers he knew the greeting that Murilo Mendes addressed to every river he saw: "The Paraibuna salutes you" . I don't know if José Paulo Netto sees himself, like Pedro Nava, as a “poor man from the Caminho Novo das Minas dos Matos Gerais”. What I do know is that the three of them deserve the same admiration and respect from all those who refuse to accept a damaged life.

Bachelor of social work from the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, in 1969, José Paulo studied neo-Latin letters at the same university, between 1970 and 1973, and studied literary theory and comparative literature at the University of São Paulo, between 1980 and 1981. He obtained a doctorate in social work from the Pontifical University of São Paulo, in social work, in 1990. He developed an intense activity as a professor, in Brazil and abroad, teaching at higher education institutions in Juiz de Fora, São Paulo, Pernambuco, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Piauí, Rio Grande do Sul, Maranhão, Paraná, Amazonas, Brasilia, Santa Catarina, Lisbon (Portugal), La Plata (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay).

Alongside his teaching activity, his participation in bodies and policies aimed at the political and professional training of the social service community was equally intense, in which he is recognized as one of the most outstanding references, both for his broad and diversified knowledge and for his firm, lucid and combative performance.

A PCB militant since his youth, he reached the leadership of the Party having faced the harsh conditions of clandestine work and the permanent repression that the military dictatorship in Brazil moved against leftist organizations. Linked to the generation of young communist militants responsible for overcoming the Stalinist heritage of the PCB – the generation of Leandro Konder, Carlos Nelson Coutinho, Luiz Werneck Vianna, among other names –, José Paulo Netto lived, with dignity and courage, what is inherent in political activity permanently threatened by imprisonment, torture, death at the hands of repression. As much as other militants who sought the best of the Marxist lesson, José Paulo combined theory with practice; the high theoretical-philosophical abstractions to the daily work of propaganda, organization, mobilization, political direction of struggles; he dedicated himself as much to the study of Marxism as to the theory and history of revolutions, not neglecting to understand Brazil in its disconcerting complexity.

Such interests and motivations are permanently represented in the themes to which he dedicated himself and on which he produced many and significant works. With some arbitrariness, it is possible to identify four major thematic blocks in José Paulo Netto's intellectual production, namely: I) issues related to social service; II) issues related to Brazil and the capitalist crisis; III) issues related to Lukács' work; IV) questions referring to the thought of Marx and Marxism. The list that follows does not intend to be exhaustive, but rather seeks to organize a significant part of the author's intellectual production.

I - Social work

(1) Notes on Marxism and social work, their relations in Brazil and the question of their teaching. abess notebooks. São Paulo, Cortez/Brazilian Association for Teaching Social Work, no. 4, May 1991, p. 76-95.

(2) Dictatorship and social service. Sao Paulo, Cortez, 1991.

(3) Monopoly capitalism and social service. Sao Paulo, Cortez, 1992.

II – Brazil and the capitalist crisis

(1) Notes on democracy and socialist transition. Human Sciences Themes. São Paulo, Human Sciences, n. 3, 1979, p. 31-66.

(2) Capitalism and reification. São Paulo, Human Sciences, 1981.

(3) Answers to Presence. Presence. Magazine of Politics and Culture. Rio de Janeiro, n.o. 10, Jul. 1987, p. 60-9.

(4) Democracy and socialist transition. Theory and policy essays. Belo Horizonte, Bookshop, 1990.

(5) Crisis of socialism and neoliberal offensive. Sao Paulo, Cortez, 1993.

(6) Five notes on the social issue. temporalis. ABEP Magazine. Brasilia, Abeps, n. 3, Jan.-Jun. 2001, p. 41-9.

(7) A contemporary face of barbarism. New directions. Marília, Unesp, v. 50, noo. 1, Jan.-Jun. 2013, p. 12-51.

(8) Short history of the Brazilian dictatorship (1964-1985). Sao Paulo, Cortez, 2014.

III – Lukács

(1) After modernism. In: COUTINHO, Carlos Nelson et al. (org.) Realism & anti-realismor in Brazilian literature. Rio de Janeiro, Peace and Land, 1974, p. 105-38.

(2) Aesthetic possibilities in History and class consciousness. Human Sciences Themes. São Paulo, Human Sciences, no. 3, 1978, p. 61-78.

(3) From the youthful works of G. Lukács. Encounters with Brazilian Civilization. Rio de Janeiro, n.o. 3, Sep. 1978, p. 225-51.

(4) Lukács and the cultural problematic of the Stalinist era. Human Sciences Themes. São Paulo, Human Sciences, no. 5, 1979, p. 17-53.

(5) Lukács, the restless warrior. São Paulo, Brasiliense, 1983.

(6) Organization of Luke: sociology. São Paulo, Ática, 1992, Great Social Scientists collection.

(7) Georg Lukács: an exile in post-modernity. In: PINASSI, Maria Orlanda; LESSA, Sergio (org.). Lukács and the actuality of Marxism. São Paulo, Boitempo, 2002, p. 77-101.

(8) Organization, presentation and translation by LUKÁCS, Györg. The young Marx and other philosophical writings. Rio de Janeiro, Editora UFRJ, 2007 (in partnership with Carlos Nelson Coutinho).

(9) Organization, introduction and translation by LUKÁCS, Györg. Socialism and democratization. Political writings (1956-1971). Rio de Janeiro, Editora UFRJ, 2008 (in partnership with Carlos Nelson Coutinho).

(10) Organization, introduction and translation by LUKÁCS, Györg. Art and society. Aesthetic writings (1932-1967). Rio de Janeiro, Editora UFRJ, 2009 (in partnership with Carlos Nelson Coutinho).

(11) Technical review and edition notes by LUKÁCS, Györg. Marx and Engels as Historians of Literature. São Paulo, Boitempo, 2016, Lukács Library collection (in partnership with Ronaldo Vielmi Fortes).

(12) Technical review and edition notes by LUKÁCS, Györg. Young Hegel and the Problems of Capitalist Society. São Paulo, Boitempo, 2018, Lukács Library collection (in partnership with Ronaldo Vielmi Fortes).

IV - Thought of Marx and Marxism

(1) Organization of English: policy. São Paulo, Ática, 1981, Great Social Scientists collection.

(2) Organization of Stalin: policy. São Paulo, Ática, 1982, Grandes Cientistas S collection

(3) About the Critique of 1843. New Writing Essay. São Paulo, 1983, p. 177-96.

(4) The Marx of Souza Santos. A controversial note. Red Beach. Studies in Politics and Social Theory. Rio de Janeiro, Editora UFRJ, vol. 1, no. 1, 1997, p. 123-43.

(5) Editing and prologue by MARX, Karl; ENGELS, Friedrich. Manifesto of the Communist Party. Sao Paulo, Cortez, 1998.

(6) unrepentant Marxism. Contribution to the history of Marxist ideas. Sao Paulo, Cortez, 2004.

(8) Political economy. A critical introduction. São Paulo, Cortez, 2007 (in partnership with Marcelo Braz).

(9) Introduction to the study of Marx's method. São Paulo, Popular Expression, 2011.

(10) Organization and introduction of Marx's reader. Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian Civilization, 2012.

(11) Note on Marxism in Latin America. New Themes. Magazine of the Caio Prado Jr Institute. Salvador/Sao Paulo, Quartet/ICP, n. 5/6, 2012, p. 43-60.

(12) Brief note on a convinced and avowed Marxist. In: BRAZ, Marcelo (org.). Carlos Nelson Coutinho and the renewal of Marxism in Brazil. São Paulo, Popular Expression, 2012, p. 51-84.

(13) Carlos Nelson Coutinho. In Tariff. Magazine of the Faculty of Social Service of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Editora da Uerj, v. 10, noo.29, 2012, p. 181-4.

(14) Daily: knowledge and criticism. 10. ed. São Paulo, Cortez, 2012 (in partnership with Maria do Carmo Brant de Carvalho).

(15) Translation and presentation by MARX, Karl. Paris notebooks & Meconomic-philosophical manuscripts of 1844. São Paulo, Popular Expression, 2015.

(16) Translation and presentation by MARX, Karl. misery of philosophy. Sao Paulo, Boitempo, 2017.

Intellectual, activist and professor, José Paulo Netto has received well-deserved academic recognition (Dr. Honorary by the Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Province of Buenos Aires and by the Lusíada University of Lisbon) as he has dedicated himself to the political-cultural training of social fighters in Brazil, as in his role as a professor at the Florestan Fernandes National School, linked to the Rural Workers Movement Landless. In 2017, on his seventieth birthday, he was honored with the book Jose Paulo Netto. Essays of a Restless Marxist, organized by Professor Marcelo Braz, from UFRJ, and presented by Professor Elaine Rossetti Behring, from Uerj, who says: “These texts, hitherto dispersed in various sources, reveal, in each line, their connection with the history and concern in understanding the context of class struggles, whether in more general analyzes of the contemporary dynamics of capitalism, or of particular revolutionary processes, or about Social Work, or finally the international and Latin American Marxist tradition”. (Behring, in Braz, ed., 2017).

Solidarity, generous, loyal and devoid of the small and large illnesses of the soul that are the stuff of mediocrity and pettiness, José Paulo Netto is the synthesis of complete moral health and lively intelligence for human emancipation. In the kind of preface to the biography that will be read, he says that his whole life, since the beginning of the 1960s, has been like a slow preparation for what is now being done: an effective biography of Marx (and, in part, by Engels), written with scruples and deep mobilization of profuse sources, accredited and updated.

Marx's biography

Among the biographies of Karl Marx, there are those that sought to establish, above all, the intellectual life of the German; is the case of Karl Marx. Intellectual biography essay (Karl Marx. Essay on intellectual biography), doctoral thesis defended by Maximilien Rubel at Sorbonne University, in 1954; This is also the case with the book by Armando Plebe originally published in Italian in 1973 with the title What truly says Marx? (What Marx actually said).

“When he died in 1883, Karl Marx was already a well-known name in Europe in various circles. Even many of those who opposed his ideas could not ignore him; still others feared him, calling him the "red terrorist doctor." This relatively wide presence of Marx (not only in Europe) was asserted, above all, after the Paris Commune, in 1871, when his name was associated with that “assault on heaven” that panicked the ruling classes around the world. Marx's three writings on the Commune – later bundled into a book, The Civil War in France – are a very rare combination of judicious, lucid and solidary analysis, in which the heroic and generous example of those who claimed to “be there for humanity” was seen in both its greatness and its limitations”.

“In 1871, the 3 thousand copies of the first edition of Book I of The capital, which came out in 1867, had not yet been sold. After the Commune, the print run was quickly exhausted, which led Marx to prepare, in 1872, a second edition, with substantial modifications, making this version the text to be considered as definitive of Book I of The capital (Scaron, 1977). Also in 1872, the Russian translation of Book I was released and the edition, in fascicles, of the French translation began, which was completed in 1875. Completely identified with the construction of socialism, with the revolution, Marx's thought motivated manifestations of great names of the bourgeois thought, such as Eugen Bohm-Bawerk, Vilfredo Pareto, Max Weber, Benedetto Croce and Joseph Schumpeter. They studied him, some of whom recognized Marx's undeniable analytical merits, vigorous prose, and astounding erudition.

The text above, which presents the collection Karl Marx. Man, thinker and révolutionary [Karl Marx. Man, thinker and revolutionary], David Riazanov, organizer of the work, says about Marx: “There will hardly be another figure in world history who brings together, in a harmonious and ingenious unit, the concentration of theoretical thought on the understanding of the world. bourgeoisie, the inextinguishable hunger to overcome this form of exploitation of man by man, the permanent aspiration to destroy this world of exploitation through its revolutionary transformation from top to bottom”. (Ryazanov, 1928, p. 7).

In this volume, Riazanov collected the first attempts at a biography of Marx, respectively: a text on Marx written by Engels for the People's Almanac, by W. Brocke, from 1878; a letter from Engels to Friedrich Sorge, dated 15 March 1883, on Marx's death; Engels' speech at his friend's grave, March 17, 1883; a text by Eleanor Marx, daughter of Karl, whose title is “Karl Marx”. In addition to these, the book also brings other texts that seek to fix the image of Marx: by Plekhanov, Mehring, Luxemburgo, Lafargue, Lenin, Lessner, Wilhelm Liebknecht. Among the first attempts, still valid, at a biography of Marx, one cannot omit that of Franz Mehring, from 1918, which, among other merits, received the explicit approval of Laura Lafargue, daughter of the biographed, Rosa Luxemburgo and Clara Zetkin , and sought to show a Marx completely different from “the boring model good guy venerated by the priests of Marxism” (Mehring, 1965, p. 10).

Some of the first biographical works on Marx have the privilege of having been written by people who actually knew him, or who knew him closely. On the other hand, the first biographies – released before the beginning of the project of the first Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), directed by Riazanov from 1927 – were hampered by the lack of knowledge of a considerable part of Marx's work and correspondence. Although this is an objective problem that ended up compromising several old biographies of Marx, contemporary works, which had access to much of what was published about the German from the MEGA 2 project, suffer from other (and perhaps more serious) defects. , which result from perfectly mistaken interpretations. Take the book by Jonathan Sperber, who wrote a copious biography of Marx to conclude that he was indeed a nineteenth-century author; that is, a historian-economist-sociologist from Victorian England (Sperber, 2014).

It is not the case here to criticize this platitude. The biography of Marx written by Boris Nicolaievsky and Otto Maenchen-Helfen in the 1930s argues that Marx, after 1873, would have been affected by a progressive inability to work, whose major consequence would have been the interruption of the completion of books II and III of The capital, due to “paralysis of his creative force” (Nicolaievsky and Maenchen-Helfen, 1970, p. 417).

In effect, this thesis, in addition to being factually false – as Marx maintained permanent and vigorous intellectual activity until at least 1881 – still gave rise to other equally mistaken interpretations, such as that of José Arthur Giannotti, who saw in “the paralysis of Marx’s creative forces” the explanation of an impasse: “There are indications that Marx had reached a theoretical impasse, since the analysis of the grammar of capital was moving in a direction that would oblige him to review his old idea of ​​Revolution” (Giannotti, 2000, p. 88). In this case, we are facing a very rare intellectual operation. Professor Giannotti, who sees himself as a Marxologist, wants to convince us that this condition of his, that of claiming for himself a certain “Marxist heritage”, authorizes him to a radical revisionism, which is to make Marx a “logic of capital”. , a “capital grammarian”, completely distant from (who knows what that would mean) “the old idea of ​​Revolution”; that is, Marx was transformed from a thinker and militant of the socialist revolution, which had always been his main occupation, into a technician, into an analytical philosopher – which distorts not only the ineradicable ontological dimension of Marx’s work, but, above all, his explicit and permanently reaffirmed revolutionary commitments.

Received with great expectations due to the prestige of the biographer, Gareth Stedman Jones, one of the leaders of the important publication New Left Review, the biography published in English in 2016 turns out not to correspond to what was expected of it, incurring an unexpected failure of someone accustomed to the critique of political economy, central to Marx's theoretical project. Jones, surprisingly, shows signs of precarious, something naive, understanding the transformation wrought by Marx in the labor theory of value, ineptly ignoring the implications of the dialectical exposition of The capital, which determines the modulation of the levels of abstraction with which the categories are presented.

In this sense, it is almost shocking that an author renowned as a connoisseur of Marx's work produces the silly and mistaken phrase: “We Grundrisse, his treatment of the value problem was unclear. In the first volume ofThe capital, he avoided the more difficult aspects of the subject, confining himself to discussing the production, while his relevant efforts to attack the problem in the unpublished second and third volumes were unsuccessful”. (Jones, 2017, p. 425). What is astonishing about this type of criticism is that, by that time, Marx had already written the bulk of four books by Marx. The capital. In particular, Book III was the first to be developed, prior to the publication of Book I in 1867 – and such information has been available long enough for Jones to be aware of it.

Two other important biographies have been released recently and do not suffer from the problems pointed out in the works by Sperber and Jones. They are the books of Marcello Musto, The old Marx. A biography of his last years (1881-1883), 2018, and Michael Heinrich, Karl Marx and the birth of modern society. Biography and development of his work (1818-1841), also from 2018, the first of the three volumes planned for this work.

José Paulo Netto's biography of Marx is certainly the most comprehensive and informed of those published by Brazilians. These include: Leandro Konder's, from 1981; that of Hans-Georg Flickinger, from 1985; that of Jacob Gorender, from 1983, as a presentation of Book I of The capital, from the collection Os Economistas, by Editora Abril; and the presentations of the volumes of the Great Social Scientists collection, by Ática, about Marx, which bring together works by Octávio Ianni, Paul Singer and Florestan Fernandes.

In José Paulo Netto there is something of the ambition of those cartographers Borges wrote about. Here, the astonishing attempt is not to draw a map with the size of the territory in all its inexhaustible variety, but to elaborate the biography of a man who marked – and still marks – the world: Karl Marx, whose bicentennial was completed in 2018. A character biographed and studied several times, Marx has not yet been fully captured, either by the complexity and diversity of his work, or by the intricate plot that links his personal life and his work to decisive events of the 1848th century, such as the revolutions of 1849-XNUMX, the Paris Commune and the economic, political, social, cultural and technological transformations resulting from the imposition of the specifically capitalist mode of production, above all on the proletariat.

If there is something in José Paulo Netto of those cartographers, the spirit of Funes is also strong in him, another character by Borges, endowed with such a prodigious memory that, on one occasion, he remembered the events of the previous day and the memory lasted 24 hours.

José Paulo Netto, a mixture of Chinese cartographer and Funes, the memorable one, gave us a biography of Marx that seems to have left nothing out, nothing: from the big to the small everyday things of Marx's almost 65 years of life, from the vast universe of his work to the events and processes that marked the history of the world commanded by capital.

José Paulo Netto's biography of Marx has several distinctive landmarks. It is impressive for its permanent search for precision, for its documentary foundation, for its balanced judgment, which has always sought to be tempered by respect for differences, without this having appeased a very keen vocation for the struggle of ideas, for political and ideological dispute.

Really cyclopean, the present work has eight chapters, 462 pages of text, including an introduction and an epilogue – there are 205 pages of notes (totaling 1.006 notes) and 75 pages of bibliography, discounting the pages occupied by iconographic material and the onomastic index . The first chapter has 40 pages and 102 notes; the second, 64 pages and 141 notes; the third, 68 pages and 145 notes; the fourth, 48 pages and 152 notes; the fifth, 80 pages and 176 notes; the sixth, 48 pages and 96 notes; the seventh, 60 pages and 128 notes; the eighth, 30 pages and 62 notes. The epilogue has 4 pages and 4 notes.

If the notes are fluvial, the citations are no less copious. Even though he was aware that he might be incriminated, due to the abundance of notes and citations, José Paulo did not hesitate to keep them, arguing that the complexity and scope of the undertaking so require. He recalled, in this regard, a phrase by Marx that speaks of the demanding path of knowledge, which almost always can only be conquered after hard work, patience, availability to let yourself be surprised by the new. José Paulo Netto pays homage to his reader by not underestimating his intelligence and willingness to be in contact with powerful prose, a language that goes against the grain.

The biography of Marx that José Paulo Netto gives us has three narrative levels: (1) there is the personal history of Marx (and of Engels, in part), his family relationships, the set of small and prosaic things of which the world is made private, even that of a great man; 2) there is capitalism, class struggles, at various crucial moments (1848, 1857, 1866, 1871), whether in central countries – England, France, Belgium, Germany, United States – or in peripheral countries – India, China , Russia, Ireland, Latin America; 3) and there is the work, extensive and complex, which cannot be apprehended from reductionisms. It is with regard to the presentation and analysis of Marx's work that José Paulo's book stands out the most. In effect, we are faced with a biography of Marx that is also a rigorous presentation and interpretation of his work as a whole, in its various dimensions, as a critical theory, as a philosophy of praxis, as a call for politics, for organization, for mobilization, for the socialist revolution.

For all this, we salute José Paulo Netto.

*JJoão Antonio de Paula He is a professor at the Center for Development and Planning at the Faculty of Economic Sciences at UFMG.

Reference


Jose Paulo Netto. Karl Marx: A biography. São Paulo, Boitempo, 2020, 816 pages.

Rbibliographic eferences


BRAZ, Marcelo (org.) (2017). Jose Paulo Netto. Essays of a Restless Marxist. Sao Paulo, Cortez.

CARONE, Edgard (1986). Marxism in Brazil (from its origins to 1964). Rio de Janeiro, Two Points. FAGES, J.B (1974). Introduction to the Diversity of Marxisms. Toulouse, Privat.

GIANNOTTI, José Arthur (2000). Marx. Life & Work. Porto Alegre, L&PM.

HEINRICH, Michael (2018). Karl Marx and the birth of modern society. Biography and development of his work (1818-1841). Trans. Claudio Cardinali. Sao Paulo, Boitempo, vol. 1. JONES, Gareth Stedmanc (2017). Karl Marx. Greatness and illusion. Trans. Berilo Vargas. São Paulo,

Company of Letters.

MEHRING, Franz (1965). Karl Marx. The founder of scientific socialism. Buenos Aires, Claridad.

MUSTO, Marcello (2018). The old Marx. A Biography of His Last Years (1881-1883). Trans.

Rubens Enderle. Sao Paulo, Boitempo.

NICOLAIEVSKY, Boris; MAENCHEN-HELFEN, Otto (1970). La Vie by Karl Marx. L'Homme et leur Lutte. Paris, Gallimard.

RIAZANOV, David (org.) (1928). Karl Marx. Homme, penseur et revolutionnaire. Paris, Ed.

Sociales Internationales.

SCARON, Pedro (2017). Translator warning. In: MARX, Karl. capital. Book I. Mexico/ Madrid/Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI, p. 7-40.

SPERBER, Jonathan (2014). Karl Marx. A XNUMXth century life. Barueri, Amarilys.

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