Lima Barreto: sad visionary

Marco Buti, Via


Commentary on the book by Lilia Moritz Schwarcz.

This biography seduces with its informal language and frightens with its length: 511 pages of main text, in small type (Clearface E), plus 135 pages, at the end of the volume, of notes, bibliographical references, chronology, acknowledgments, researched collections, image credits, index and information about the Author… total of 646 pages. Passages in the book look like a didactic manual or an encyclopedia, also due to the abundant illustrations.

The lightness of the writing, in some passages, is also the impressionism of expressions such as “nice musical café” (p 136), “despite” (p 139; “despite” on p 332) and “incredible as it may seem” (p 178). . The material could be divided into more volumes, with greater conciseness. It is worth facing it for the interpretative dialogues it makes possible.

Some commentators classified Afonso Henriques as a marginal, cursed writer, emphasized alcoholism and lack of personal care with hygiene and clothing, madness and frustrations, topics present in the current biography. Editing your Art Works by the respected Editora Brasiliense (1956),[I] with prefaces by important names – Manuel de Oliveira Lima, Alceu do Amoroso Lima, Sergio Buarque de Holanda, Gilberto Freyre and others –, together with the biography written by Francisco de Assis Barbosa, are evidence to the contrary.[ii]

The relaunch of some of his titles by Companhia das Letras (responsible for this new biography) and other publishers, in addition to earlier or slightly later academic studies on him – Osman Lins, Carlos Erivany Fantinati, Nicolau Sevcenko, Poliana dos Santos, etc. – reinforce that denial.[iii] Significant names in Brazilian literary criticism, such as Mário de Andrade and Alfredo Bosi, participated, at different times, in this revaluation.[iv]

The first words of this biography place the biographer herself in the volume, who even visited the places mentioned. Periodization was associated with Lima Barreto's works, which puts them at the center of attention. This does not prevent the appeal to other criteria for marking time in the History of Brazil, such as the “First Republic”, thus designated by its supposed successor in 1930 and preserved in a good part of Historiography, despite the now classic criticisms of what was designated as “ winner's revolution.[v]

There is a risk that generalities associated with that denomination (oligarchies, café-au-lait politics, etc.) diminish Afonso Henriques' peculiar literary experience, even if some of them are even in the fiction writer and his interpreters. Life and work, at certain times, are equated, there is talk of “mirroring in relation to the suburbs” (p. 185), with the transformation of Lima Barreto and his relatives, friends and enemies into character models, losing broader scope of the fictional act: if Policarpo Quaresma only projected João Henriques, the Writer's father, or Isaias Caminha and Gonzaga de Sá simply repeated the paths of Afonso Henriques himself (p 146), Isaías as a “spokesperson for his creator's ideas” (p 211 ), “Isaías/Lima” (p. 226 and 237), and Clara dos Anjos reduced to the female version of the Author, what would become of the universalizing flight of fiction?

Lilia speaks of “social exclusion of large parts of the population” by the Brazilian Republic, highlights racism and mentions black names in national literature – Lima Barreto, Luiz Gama and Cruz e Sousa – without evoking, in this first list, Machado de Assis. She meticulously describes the social and physical environment where the writer lived in childhood, youth and adulthood. Lima Barreto appears not only as a descendant of pariahs, but also as an ambitious and promising young man.

The paths of his parents are examples of social ascension of Afro-descendants in the final stage of Brazilian slavery, through study and work, but also of decline due to health problems (tuberculosis of Amália Augusta and madness of João Henriques, mother and father of the Writer). , in addition to his father's professional difficulties from 1889 onwards, aggravated by his later illness.

The book endorses the more egalitarian character of the “body of law” in the second half of the Brazilian nineteenth century (p. 52), in contrast to so-called scientific racist theories. It would be worth thinking more about the articulations between these poles and internal tensions in the scientific arguments of racial content, disqualified in the tragedy exposed by Euclides da Cunha and clearly opposed by Manoel Bomfim.[vi]

The biographer recounts Lima Barreto's personal memories of the collective euphoria experienced at the Court at the time of Abolition, without drawing parallels with passages from the novel Aires memorial, by Machado de Assis, where the central character, a retired diplomat, talks about a social gathering on May 14, 1888, at the home of the couple friend Aguiar and D. Carmo. Aires congratulates the two, who answer: "I already knew?". It is an intriguing question: how could one not know what happened the day before? Soon, it becomes clear that the couple was referring to the return of their stepchild, Tristão, who had remained in Europe to study for a long period.[vii] In this fictional passage, the public interest and the private sphere are at odds, the joy for the common good is supplanted by the couple's even greater family happiness. It is a subtle indication of the social sphere in which Aires and his friends were situated, of Abolition itself in that Brazil, which announced the public space and prioritized private interest.

Schwarcz speaks of Lima Barreto's “color complex” (p. 122 and 379), a feeling that could be discussed as an awareness of the racism then in force in the country, a social problem and not a psychological difficulty. And he uses the term Belle Epoque (p. 133 and others) without major critical tensions, although it records clear everyday violence against the poor and prejudiced in that universe – bête époque, and not only in Brazil. In a similar sense, the designation “flaneur”, applied to the Brazilian Writer (p 163), deserves adjustments. What is it like for a poor middle-class black to wander around the Federal District where Lima Barreto lived, shortly after Abolition? Risk being arrested as a social suspect?

The magazine Floreal, from 1907, directed by Afonso Henriques, after a short period as secretary of the branch Fon-Fon!, reached just four numbers, with a different project in relation to similar publications – rejection of social columns, p. ex. – and in confrontation with literary and politically established groups. She addressed issues such as divorce, rejected mandatory military service and began publicizing the novel. Memories of the clerk Isaías Caminha[viii], a critical text in relation to the Press and the racism of the time. Despite the short survival, Floreal suggests the consolidation of a controversial profile of Lima Barreto, facing powers in that Brazil.

Lilia's analysis of the novel Memories of the clerk Isaías Caminha emphasizes the image of this character as alter ego de Lima (p. 215), without exploring the character of literary invention in this narrative step: alter ego deliberately created. Hence, Schwarcz attributes the failure of the market and criticism of that work to “Mistaken strategy”, “misfit” in relation to the medium (p. 227). The novel, however, stood as a milestone in the work of Afonso Henriques and in Brazilian literature, contrary to its best-selling and most appreciated contemporaries: not everything is a market. It is worth considering the maladjustment of literary sociability in relation to a critical text, accustomed as it was to self-justifying mannerisms. The tension between the scribe of the title (copying texts) and the fiction writer (inventor of plots) invites us to think about the intellectual and artistic suitability of the strategy: Lima Barreto won, despite the “pain of writing” (p 339)![ix]

There are comments on the character's first name, Isaiah, which refers to the Prophet of the Judeo-Christian tradition, linked to salvation (pp 230/231). It is worth remembering the surname, Caminha, a possible evocation of the also scrivener – ennobled – Pero Vaz de Caminha, Brazil's inaugural inventor in his Discovery Charter, in this fictional recreation. And “walking” is also the act of walking, in spite of everything, in this country so full of problems: the Prophet went ahead, like the Writer.

Lilia comments on the novel Numa and the nymph, with emphasis on three characters: Numa (an upstart who manages to become a deputy), Edgarda (daughter of a governor, wife of Numa) and Dr. Bogoloff (Russian immigrant who rises socially through scams).[X] The work was commissioned from the writer by the Rio de Janeiro newspaper At night, which demonstrates recognition of the reading potential that Lima Barreto could awaken.

Schwarcz does not address, at this stage, the character Lucrécio Barba-de-Bode, a poor mulatto, who provided informal and illegal services to politicians in the 1909/1910 presidential campaign – beating supporters of opponents, dissolving demonstrations – and surviving in conditions of extreme insecurity, to look for a stable job, which he could not find. In a remarkable passage of the text, after drinking a lot, Lucrécio asks to raise a toast in homage to Senator Macieira, and when authorized, he manages to say nothing, vomits and is expelled from the environment as an uncomfortable figure (p 134 of Numa and the nymph): instead of verbally expressing ideas, he publicly exposed the innards in the form of debris[xi].

In another passage (quoted much later by Lilia, p. 419-420), about to leave the house to attack a merchant who had refused to sell his family on credit because of late payments, Lucrecio says to his wife, in a tone of deep revolt : "You don't know what it's like to be a mulatto!" (p. 90 of the novel). There is a history of humiliation in this speech by a character, who is useful to the powerful while socially fragile. Offender, he could not be considered alter ego of the novelist, except in this strategic condition of mulatto, which makes its discussion essential.

In a first approach to the novel Clara dos Anjos, the biographer evokes the modinha “Canção”, also known as “Mestiça”, an original poem by Antonio Gonçalves Crespo, melody by João Portaro, sung in the novel by the seductive Cassi Jones (p 258). Lilia draws parallels between the verses and the plot of the novel (Seduction of a mestizo by Jones and, in the song, the overseer's desire for another). In the original text of the poem, kept in the modinha, the girl opted for “a poor peddler”, with whom she ran away at the end, to the dismay of the other.[xii]

The biography describes in detail the first hospitalization of Lima Barreto, in 1914, even outlines an overview of Psychiatric Medicine in Brazil since the Empire, with a strong presence of prejudice in the diagnoses of the inmates: even descending from blacks and being an anarchist were seen as symptoms of craziness! - P. 280. The book devotes much attention to alcoholism in those clinical criteria.

On the other hand, the period that follows this traumatizing experience is defined by the intense activity of the Writer, linked to associative projects of the Men of Letters, regularly publishing short stories, chronicles and the masterpiece Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma[xiii], despite some degradation in physical appearance (p. 289). Schwarcz indicates that Afonso Henriques wanted to be an Other, differentiated, in Journalism, Politics, Functionalism (p. 295), not to mention the most important thing – in Literature! He paid out of pocket and went into debt to see this book printed. Lilia highlights the Writer's disappointment with the only average reception given to the book by the Press, despite the very favorable review by the prestigious Historian Manuel de Oliveira Lima (member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters), reproduced as a preface to the Brasiliense edition[xiv], which compares it “only” to Don Quixote![xv]

Schwarcz employs the thought-provoking concept of “modernity in pieces” (p 305), which could even be expanded to other literary experiences, as in Thomas Mann’s almost contemporary novel “Death in Venice”[xvi] – cosmopolitan pieces. But the biographer's melancholic conclusion to that novel (“Disappointment is the central theme of the book, of the chronicles, of the short stories, and also of Lima's life”, p. 313) fails to take into account its outcome. Olga, Policarpo's goddaughter, who had tried unsuccessfully to contribute to his release (he had been imprisoned by the dictatorship of Floriano Peixoto), thinks about historical changes in the urban space where he was.

She goes on to meet Ricardo Coração dos outros, composer of modinhas, guitar teacher and friend of Quaresma – the musician had asked Olga for that intervention. There is hope in this encounter: the elite white woman dared to disobey her husband, an upstart doctor, to fight for her godfather; the mulatto man, poor, remained faithful to his friend, fought for his salvation, with the power at his disposal. They are, respectively, a courageous woman, building her freedom (her husband compared her behavior to the theater scene, and this did not inhibit her – p. 295 of Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma) and an underappreciated popular artist, faithful to their values, potential forces of transformation, heirs of Policarpo. All was not lost (p. 296-297 of the novel).[xvii]

Comments on Lima Barreto's library (the Limana, thus named by the Writer) reinforce, in the biography, the identification between Afonso Henriques and Policarpo Quaresma. One can observe, in that collection, a desire to know, which required financial investment and reading effort, was the basis for writings, attestation of the Author's erudition and perseverance. Its collection indicates literary predilections, predominant languages ​​(Portuguese and French), zeal with textual making, tensions with the United States of America due to the prevailing racism in that country.

Schwarcz records the ambiguous relations between Afonso Henriques and Machado de Assis (p. 325 ff), criticized by the former due to his social choices. She comments on comparisons that different critics made between the two, a prestigious comparison for the younger writer, without citing the article “A Psicologia em ação”, by Mario de Andrade, indicated above. They are different poetics; Brazilian Literature would be diminished without one of them; they shared their own disturbing modernities; became classics.

The book presents Lima Barreto's sympathies for anarchists and the defense he made of women in the world of Capitalism, although he rejected the Feminism of privileged social groups. The biographer emphasizes the characterization of female characters by the Author, always in the domestic space and without financial and professional independence (p 359), silencing, once again, Olga's action at the end of Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma. Regarding relations with Anarchism, Lilia concludes: “He never had a more direct participation, therefore” (p. 361). But publications in periodicals linked to anarchists and the defense of a combative Literature were participation as a Writer.

Afonso Henriques defined salaried workers as “slaves of capitalism” (p 362), hailed the Russian Revolution (p 365) and continued to denounce Brazil's ills. More than “cake recipe” (p 372), his arguments embraced alternative social projects. And he found in Monteiro Lobato a respectful editor and correspondent, who valued him even in contractual terms.

His second psychiatric hospitalization took place in 1919 and served as the basis for the unfinished The Cemetery of the Living[xviii]. The great suffering caused by the situation did not prevent Lima Barreto from literally translating it into a project for a new novel, with the asylum as “a prison like any other” (p 397), more critical of the authorities. Lilia repeats, also in this step, the equation between the Writer's life and work, paying little attention to the literary gesture as a creation of another world – more than a record of the period (p 400), a partial invention of that period.

The second approach of Clara dos Anjos, in the biography, reviews his setting in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro, the sexual exploitation of black and mixed-race girls by white boys (“the malandros were not the dark and poor: they were the lower-middle-class whites”, p. 410).[xx] Lilia considers Lima Barreto's postures ambivalent, who defended poor women against violence, but rejected Feminism on the rise (p. 413). It is noteworthy that he criticized the elitist attitudes of these feminists without eyes for the great problems of poverty among women. Schwarcz also emphasizes Afonso Henriques' attention to Brazilian blacks and mestizos after Abolition, beings he considered to be bearers of goodness, treated almost like domestic animals (p 419).

The biography indicates Lima Barreto's sympathy for imperial Brazil, where he saw “some beauty” in politics (p. 421), although slavery persisted until its penultimate year of existence. She mentions the character Lucrécio Barba-de-Bode, as a henchman, when discussing the multiplicity of colors in the country of Afonso Henriques (pp 423/424), she fails to see the anguish and humiliation suffered by the character. Schwarcz points to a speech by Dr. Bogóloff as an indicator of Lima Barreto's own prejudices: “Lima harshly denounces his own prejudice: 'A good dose of racial prejudice also influenced this great contempt he had for the men of Brazil. / In my eyes, they were all more or less black and I considered myself superior to all'”. (p. 254 of “The Adventures of Dr. Bogoloff”, quoted on p. 428 of the biography).[xx] It is a thought of Dr. Bogoloff. He, white, immigrant and involved in scams, would also be alter ego by Afonso Henriques? Such a fragment belongs to the visible narrative self of the text and to the character, which cannot be confused with the person of the Writer. Lima Barreto, far from confessing, paraphrased prejudices in the thinking of this fictional immigrant.

The debate on Afonso Henriques' reaction to the modernists of São Paulo, at the end of his life, recognized diversity among the moderns and the Writer's links with some of their faces - criticism of old-fashioned ideas, willingness to change and search for languages ​​open to the plurality of nation[xxx]. Lilia even compared the magazine Horn, from São Paulo, the Floral. Lima Barreto wrote about Horn, with criticism of Futurism, and the people from São Paulo, when responding, used derogatory and prejudiced language – “a writer from the neighborhood (...) ended up in one of the alleys of Saúde” (p. 455).

It should be highlighted the praise of war in the Futurist Manifesto and the priority given by Marinetti to speed and new techniques in its contemporaneity, emptied of men and women, values ​​that are hardly acceptable by a defender of solidary Literature. Schwarcz highlights psychologizing comments by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda (who delivered a copy of Horn to Afonso Henriques) on the predominance of confession in the author's writing from Rio de Janeiro[xxiii], perspective informally adopted in this biography.

And the book comes to the end of this life: illnesses, financial limits, a difficult Brazil around it, denunciations, still claims. Lilia lists texts by Lima Barreto, in 1921 and 1922, which addressed death, apparent foreshadowings for himself. And she narrates this moment in a literary way, mixing information about the Writer with passages from the novel. Life and death of MJ Gonzaga de Sá, as if fiction were a script for its Creator.[xxiii] The presence of death in the life and work of Afonso Henriques could benefit from Freud's appeal to debates, who spoke of Death Drive and Eros as a creative drive.[xxv] The energy to write so much evidences the energy of the last drive in Prosador.

Schwarcz ends the book by reflecting on the risks of idealization in the biographical genre and the case of Lima Barreto, who only received a detailed biography in 1952, at the hands of Francisco de Assis Barbosa, who also organized his Art Works at Editora Brasiliense, together with M. Cavalcanti Proença and Antonio Houaiss. Many contemporaries, at the time of his death, highlighted the “alcoholic” facet of the Writer. Coelho Neto spoke more about himself, an impeccable citizen and academic, than about Afonso Henriques, disqualified amidst apparent praise. He was so much more than that.

Predictably, there are few oversights or anachronisms in this lengthy and thoughtful book. It would be better to avoid the expression “New Republic” (p. 255) to designate the beginning of the Brazilian twentieth century, since it is usually used to name the stage that followed the 1964-1985 dictatorship. It is equally inadvisable to call periodicals sympathetic to Anarchism the “alternative press” (p. 338), a classification used for newspapers opposing the same dictatorship. And the Writer's disappointments with the Republic cannot be confused with the concepts of the Old Republic and the First Republic, which appeared from 1930 onwards. in the country”: he came first!

Highlighting Lima Barreto's literary production is a necessary task, without forgetting that many of the problems he faced continue to oppress Brazilian writers today: large publishers discard originals they have not even read; outstanding Authors are ignored by the Brazilian Academy of Letters (Dalton Trevisan, Walnice Nogueira Galvão, Augusto de Campos etc.); reviews in the mainstream press remain linked to editorial brands; those who live outside major centers remain ostracized; Orides Fontela (1940-1998) survived in poverty, despite being praised by respected critics. Books and authors continue to be treated very poorly among us.

The subtitle chosen for the biography, sad visionary, refers the volume to the presumed personality of the Writer and his masterpiece Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma, united in the intertitle “Shooting far: Policarpo Quaresma, a sad visionary” (p. 300), which the title of the chapter before “Almost conclusion” paraphrases: “Sad end of Lima Barreto” (p. 463).

Faced with so many achievements of this poor black man (the victory of writing in an innovative way and mastering different genres, activities that demanded a lot of intellectual and even physical energy, despite belonging to a humble middle class and being the object of prejudice, in addition to generating important work, repeated by countless interpreters), it is preferable to emphasize his ability and great posthumous success, which continues to be read and analyzed as a powerful visionary.

“Drinking seemed to wash away his often postponed dream of becoming a renowned writer” (p 401)? “(…) his republic, the one that was said then: 'The republic that was not'. / Also Lima 'wasn't' (…)” (p 461)?

He became a renowned writer, even while he was alive, admired by intellectuals such as Oliveira Lima and Monteiro Lobato, and had a dense edited work… Lima Barreto was and is!

The strength of the poor and prejudiced is often barely visible. Afonso Henriques de Lima Barreto occupies, more and more, prominent spaces in Brazilian Literature. This biography contributes to his being even more read.

* Mark Silva is a full professor at the Department of History at FFLCH-USP.


Lilia Moritz Schwarcz. Lima Barreto: sad visionary. São Paulo, Companhia das Letras, 646 pages.


[I] This edition of Brasiliense was honored in the volume by Lilia Schwarcz through the reproduction of the graphic design of her spine on the cover of the work.

[ii] BARBOSA, Francisco de Assis. The life of Lima Barreto. São Paulo/Rio de Janeiro/Belo Horizonte: Autêntica, 2017 (1st ed.: 1952).

[iii] LINS, Osman. Lima Barreto and the Romanesque space. São Paulo: Ática, 1976 (Essays – 20).

FANTINATI, Carlos Erivany. The prophet and the scribe – Study on Lima Barreto. São Paulo/Assis: HUCITEC/ILHPA-UNESP, 1978.

SEVCENKO, Nicholas. Literature as a mission. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1983.

SANTOS, Poliana dos. “Devils and little devils – A Carnival story told by Lima Barreto”, in: PEIXOTO, Maria do Rosário da Cunha, and TOMELIN JR., Nelson (Eds.). Worlds of work XNUMXth and XNUMXst centuries. São Paulo: CAPES/Annablume, 2020, pp 169/187.

[iv] ANDRADE, Mario de. “Psychology in action”. In: the bird stuffer. São Paulo/Brasília: Martins/INL, 1972, p 149/153 (Original text of 19.11.1939).

BOSI, Alfredo. “Letters in the First Republic”. In: FAUSTO, Boris (right). Republican Brazil. society and institutions. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 1997, pp 293/319 (General history of Brazilian civilization, volume III, volume 2).

[v] VESENTINI, Carlos Alberto and DEDECCA, Edgar. "The winner's revolution". Counterpoint. São Paulo: I (2): 60/69, nov. 1976.

[vi] CUNHA, Euclid. The Sertões: Campaign of Canudos. São Paulo: Três, 1984 (1st ed.: 1902).

BOMFIM, Manuel. Latin America – Evils of origin. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 1992 (1st ed.: 1905).

[vii] MACHADO DE ASSIS, Joaquim Maria. “Ayres Memorial”, in: Machado de Assis – Complete work. I. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Aguilar, 2006, pp 1095/1200 (1st ed.: 1908).

This romance is recorded elsewhere in the biography, without further comment.

[viii] LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. Memories of the clerk Isaías Caminha. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1956 (Obras de Lima Barreto, I – 1st ed.: 1909).

[ix] IDEM. “Literary impressions”. The Lusitana. Rio de Janeiro: 1 (2), 48/50, 10 June 1916.

[X] LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. Numa and the nymph. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1956 (Obras de Lima Barreto, IV – 1st ed.: 1915).

[xi] SILVA, Mark. “Federal waste – The vomiting and silencing of Lucrécio Barba-de-Bode”, in: SILVA, Armando Malheiro da, CARNEIRO, Maria Luiza Tucci and SALMI, Stefano (Coord.). Republic, republicanism and republicans – Brazil/Portugal/Italy. Coimbra: University of Coimbra Press, 2011, pp 299/321.

[xii] CRESPO, Antonio Gonçalves and PORTARO, João. “Mestiça”, by Inezita Barroso – YouTube › watch – Accessed on 21 Apr 2021.

[xiii] LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1956 (Obras de Lima Barreto, II – 1st ed.: 1915).

The serial with the same title dates from 1911.

[xiv] OLIVEIRA LIMA, Manuel de Oliveira. “Policarpo Quaresma”, in: LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma. Cited edition, pp 9/13.

[xv] CERVANTES, Miguel de. Don Quixote. Translation by Eduardo Rado. São Paulo: April, 2012.

[xvi] MANN, Thomas. "Death in Venice". in: Tonio Kröger / Death in Venice. Translated by Maria Deling. São Paulo: Abril Cultural, 1971, pp 87/172 (1st ed.: 1912).

[xvii] Such a novel by Lima Barreto was turned into a film, with indirect references to the Brazilian dictatorship of 1964/1985, which ended shortly before its realization:

Policarpo Quaresma, Hero of Brazil (Brazil). 1988. Director: Paulo Thiago. Screenplay: Alcione Araújo. Production: Vitória Produções Cinematográficas. Music: Sergio Saraceni. Photography: Antonio Penido. Production Design: Sérgio Silveira. Costume designer: Kika Lopes. Edition: Gilberto Santeiro. Cast: Paulo José (Policarpo Quaresma), Giulia Gam (Olga), Illya São Paulo (Ricardo), Antônio Calloni (Genelício), Bete Coelho (Adelaide), Othon Bastos (Floriano Peixoto) and others. 120 minutes. Colorful.

SILVA, Mark. “Policarpo & Policarpo”, in: FONSECA, Selva Guimarães and GATTI JR., Décio (Eds.). History Teaching Perspectives: teaching, citizenship and historical awareness. Uberlândia: FAPEMIG/UFUberlândia, 2011, pp 383/390.

[xviii] LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. The Cemetery of the Living – Memoirs. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1956 (Obras de Lima Barreto, XV – 1st ed.: 1953).

[xx] IDEM. Clara dos Anjos. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1956 (Obras de Lima Barreto, V – 1st ed.: 1948).

The serial edition is from 1923/1924.

[xx] LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. “The Adventures of Dr. Bogoloff”, in: The Bruzundangas – Satire. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1956, p. 197/284 (Works by Lima Barreto, VII – 1st ed.: 1923).

The serial edition is from 1912.

[xxx] It is a problem parallel to the differences between Modernity and Modernism, debated by:

BOSI, Alfredo. “Letters in the First Republic”. Cited edition.

Lilia did not include this text in her bibliography.

[xxiii] HOLANDA, Sergio Buarque de. “Preface”, in: LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. Clara dos Anjos. Cited edition, pp 9/19.

[xxiii] LIMA BARRETO, Afonso Henriques de. Life and death of MJ Gonzaga de Sá. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1956 (Obras de Lima Barreto, IV – 1st ed.: 1919).

[xxv] FREUD, Sigmund. Beyond the pleasure bases. Translation by Renato Zwick. Porto Alegre: L&PM, 2012 (1st ed.: 1920).

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