Lima Barreto: a trait that the legend distorted

Annika Elisabeth von Hausswolff, The Photographer, 2015


Commentary on the life of the carioca writer

The troubled life of Lima Barreto, his intimate and family disappointments, the personal frustrations, the lack of love, the boredom of bureaucratic work and the long-awaited literary glory that seemed not to want to come; self-destruction in alcohol, wandering the streets of the city as if he were an unfortunate homeless person, dirty, ragged, talking to himself, sleeping in the gutters; hospitalizations in the hospice, early retirement due to disability, the racial prejudice that made him suffer so much and diminished him before himself...

Perhaps one or another ingredient might have been missing, but the recipe for telling the biography of an evil man is there. from that script the image of the carioca writer was built, either through his biographies or through the fictional narratives that were inspired by his tormented life; last but not least, for literary criticism and studies about his work. It is necessary, in this centenary of his passing, to try to recover another Lima Barreto, less burdened with bitterness, the joker Lima, a fine ironist of the bohemian circles, friend of the young people, lighter, less sad, recovering, in short, a trait that caption distorted.


“Lima Barreto (a trait that the caption distorted) was very funny”, wrote Antonio Noronha Santos, the closest friend of the author of Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma. However, when we go to research the biography of our great black writer, one of the greatest of our letters, where's the fun?

Nowadays, subtitles are understood as those letters that appear in movies or series, usually translated from one language to another; or the caption of an image, painting or photograph, with information about authorship, date and technique used; in electoral times one hears a lot about party legend… In the “Preface” he wrote for Lima Barreto’s correspondence book (Active and Passive Correspondence – 1º Tomo, Brasiliense publishing house, 1956), Antonio Noronha Santos uses the word “legend” with another meaning.

Some etymological dictionaries show that this word has a Latin origin and that it means, generically: “what or what should be read”. In medieval convents, time was not wasted, as all of it had to be devoted to the salvation of the soul. At meal times, for example, in order to continue the moral edification of the monks, one of them would read aloud, usually a text about the life of a saint or martyr. This reading was called a legend.

It is to this more primitive sense of the term that we will refer in this article: legend – account of the life or martyrdom of a saint. Let's see what Noronha Santos himself says about it: “Lima Barreto (trait that the caption misrepresented) was very funny. The quips came from his lips, without any previous preparation, but, contrary to what one might suppose, they didn't have that social and political satire stamp. These, we will find them in his work. Lima Barreto didn't attach the slightest importance to his epigrams. But I don't think the History of Brazilian Literature of Sílvio Romero will never be able to get rid of the arrow that the banderillero, with that half smile, very much his own, nailed him one day in the monstrous back, when, in front of him, they lamented the situation in which the family had left the distinguished Sergipe”.

“- Yes, agrees Lima Barreto, not even the library can sell. It's all cut. Who, with fair judgment, has gone through the thick volumes of the famous History, he won't know what else to admire, the subtlety or the surety of the criticism.[I] At the time, the 'craze' for long quotations that literary critic Sílvio Romero left throughout his texts and books was well known. We can imagine the impact caused on the circle of friends after this tirade by Lima Barreto”.

His friend Noronha Santos was excited by the news that a publisher from São Paulo would be interested in publishing the complete works of Lima Barreto, this in 1942. It would be the first attempt at rehabilitation by the author of Gonzaga de Sa, who died on November 01, 1922. The publisher The Pocket Book, based in São Paulo, announced the good news, together with literary critic and biographer Elói Pontes, in charge of prefacing and organizing the volumes.

Such news led Lima's great friend to plan the publication of the "Anedotário de Lima Barreto", the first of which appeared in the October 09, 1942 edition of the newspaper morning diary (Niterói) and in the edition of October 24, of the same year, in the newspaper Dom Casmurro.

Here is how Noronha Santos announces the intention: “It is announced that an edition – the first – of the complete works of Lima Barreto will be launched soon by a São Paulo publishing house. […] It will be prefaced by Elói Pontes [who is, without a doubt, the “right man” for the reintroduction, which after twenty years – Lima Barreto died in 22 – becomes essential for the exact appreciation of the man and the writer. To the memory of Lima, who dedicated his first book to me, I wish to collaborate with this work of literary justice that is announced. That's what I'll do, albeit very modestly, sprinkling in my memory a few “boutades” or (why not say a few bullets?) of the brilliant mulatto”.

Among the many boutades (anecdotes) by Lima Barreto, which Noronha Santos cultivated in her memory, let us cite one: “Noticing that young psychiatrists, before boarding the tram at Praia Vermelha, which will take them to their destination, take their last drinks, Lima Barreto said: did you notice? They say that alcohol populates asylums. And yet, everyone drinks…”[ii]

Noronha Santos perhaps expected that Elói Pontes (“right man” for the reintroduction) would write a biography of Lima Barreto and, as a great friend and confidant of the creator of Isaias Caminha, decided to publish the file he kept, both in his residence and in his memory. The newspaper Tomorrow, which maintained a weekly literary supplement called Authors and Books, dedicated two editions to Lima Barreto, on April 18 and May 25, 1943.

They are invaluable documents for understanding the memorialistic legacy of the great novelist from Rio de Janeiro. In the edition of May 25, Noronha Santos had at her disposal two full pages of the newspaper, in which she published the “Inéditos de Lima Barreto”, with excerpts from the letters exchanged between the two friends, and two more articles – the first of which had already been published. been published in the previous year, (the “Anedotário de Lima Barreto”), about which we alluded above.


The second article, called “Legenda”, deserves a little more attention: “What is being done with Lima Barreto? It was good that Mr. Osório Borba rebelled a few days ago against this flood of cretinous – and false – anecdotes! – that gradually disfigure the true physiognomy of the great mulatto novelist. He clearly alludes to Mr. Osório Borba to a chronicle by Luiz Edmundo, although he does not mention his name. I have not read this chronicle, nor do I know where it was published. But for Rio de Janeiro of my time,[iii] I had already noticed in him the most serious of all effects for a memoirist: he confuses everything, he lacks a chronological view of remembered times, in a word, he has no memory!”

“However, this voluntary or otherwise betrayal would not be of greater importance if it were not influencing the new generations, who did not know Lima Barreto. They are giving him, through such information, malevolent or frivolous, a false representation. A consequence of this evil influence we have in the History of Brazilian Literature, from mr. Nelson Werneck Sodré. It is undoubtedly a bona fide book. Asserts Mr. Werneck Sodré that in Lima Barreto we have a great novelist”.

But the anecdote we alluded to above had its effect. The Lima Barreto of Mr. Werneck Sodré is, without a doubt, a vagabond, a despised creature and, to a certain extent, despicable. Let us cite the essential excerpts of this phantasmagoria, shocking for all those who have had contact with Lima Barreto, and who do not know him only through vulgar tavern jokes: ““Lima Barreto represents, in our literary life, the despised son – the pariah. Of humble origin, poor and unknown... he would not know fame and fortune in life. Perhaps he never even dreamed of them... He would always be the isolated, forgotten, despised... He didn't have prominent friends, he didn't have numerous readers, he didn't have the press to praise him... When he died, they buried him in the suburban cemetery of Inhaúma, close to the which resided. Poor literature devil, beggar of letters, pariah of the press... The anonymous society of letters does not accept him... Those who wrote in his time pretended to ignore him. However… it is necessary to know that Brazil has produced a great novelist. A poor devil with a vulgar name: Afonso de Lima Barreto”.

And that's how a legend is formed! We note preliminarily that the only two material facts mentioned by Mr. Werneck Sodré are wrong. Lima Barreto did not have a common name, quite the contrary. His name was Afonso Henriques de Lima Barreto, which gave reason to a veteran, when attending the act of his registration at the Polytechnic School, make this insulting remark: Check it out! A mulatto to have the audacity to use the name of a King of Portugal! Nor was he buried in the cemetery of Inhaúma, but in that of São João Batista and had an extraordinary accompaniment to Walt Whitman, where his admirers and friends from all social classes mingled. These remarks are only worth showing how flawed the critic's documentation is."[iv]

The citation is long (like Silvio Romero's…), but it demonstrates very well the tortuous paths taken by the historical construction of a personality. That way we can see the “fame” that took hold of the writer, forgotten by the editors, but always remembered in the newspapers, sometimes as the great genius he was, at other times as a drunkard, marginal, resentful, embittered, crazy, among many other adjectives. negatives.

All of this has its dose of truth there. Just read the intimate diary ou The asylum diary. A text like “Praise of Death” would already be enough to build an entire biography of a tormented human being. Thus, the distorted “legend” and the confessions and outbursts of intimate writings shaped the writer's melancholy and suffered trait. Most of Lima Barreto's witty tirades, which populated the imagination of his friends and fellow bohemians, have been lost.

It is still Noronha Santos who tells us: “The subtitles, in turn, were grafting millennial jokes, caricatures of the non-conformity of the writer rebelling against the customs and rules of good living, and this was perhaps what led Assis Barbosa, a scrupulous biographer, to make a clean slate of all the anecdote, which would contribute, however, to the entire contribution of this spirit of such suggestive facets”.

Assis Barbosa's “blank slate” most likely had the objective of not exactly wanting to extirpate the author's anecdote from the caption. Perhaps the great biographer made an effort to show another Lima Barreto, without the deleterious blemish that was growing around his figure. In The life of Lima Barreto Assis Barbosa's desire to place other references about the personality of the writer from Rio de Janeiro is very clear. It seems that the figure of Lima Barreto, “the one from bohemia, from coffee or tavern anecdotes, vulgarized by the bad taste of some of his contemporaries”[v], this caption of the writer drunk, did not please his great biographer.

This is so true that Assis Barbosa quotes the article by journalist Osório Borba, published in the newspaper Diário de Notícias, on April 15, 1943, also mentioned by Noronha Santos: “It is evidently not far from the picturesque history genre to use anecdotes, which may sometimes not correspond to the strict historical truth, but serve to characterize a figure, a time, a table of customs. What, however, does not seem to me at all sympathetic is the insistence with which Lima Barreto is spoken of, and almost exclusively, as a hero of drunken houses. It seems that, after all, our second great novelist of this century and one of Brazil's greatest of all times, is a figure who has aspects to study beyond the misfortune, the addiction that dominated him in the last years of his existence. I am not saying that a false notion of his memory hides, in his biography, the disorderly life he led. But what is certain is that everything that has been written about the magnificent novelist of the city, the honest and brave interpreter of the feelings and anxieties of his people, is almost limited to anecdotes of debatable taste, such as the one about “why so much bread?” , whose last version mentioned above, by the way, is attributed to the very simple Lima Barreto”.


Osório Borba's article brings one of the anecdotes that would have circulated through the lips of Lima Barreto. The unhappy chronicle, which Noronha Santos attributed to the memoirist Luiz Edmundo, tells that a certain Lima Cavalcante (“João Barafunda”) [vi] and Lima Barreto drank at the famous Bar Adolf, which was located on Rua da Associação (currently the Republic of Peru) and which, after 1927, was located in Largo da Carioca. At a certain point, the two friends found themselves in need of something to eat. Lima Cavalcante goes to Lima Barreto and says: “- Barreto, we need to eat something. – We need to, Cavalcanti. But, what about the money? We barely have any more and still need to drink all night!” Lima Cavalcante then takes out a 2$000 note (two thousand réis) and proposes a solution: We can impregnate 1$900 (one thousand nine hundred réis) in cachaça and a tostão of bread (a tostão was a coin worth $100, or i.e. one hundred réis). To which Lima Barreto would have reacted: – But why so much bread?”

Another version of the anecdote appeared in the form of a statement given by the physician Reginaldo Fernandes to the writer Hélcio Pereira da Silva, one of Lima Barreto's biographers, who wrote Lima Barreto: cursed writer. Let's go to the excerpt: “- When I was still young, I was a doctor at the hospice. There ran a story inside that I won't forget. He had been interned with the novelist João Barafunda. Well then. One night, Lima Barreto gave this guy ten cents to buy something to eat. In the hospice everyone told this story. Shortly afterwards, João Barafunda returns with nine pennies of cachaça and a penny of bread. Surprised, Lima Barreto asks: 'Why so much bread?'”.[vii]

The only undeniable fact of this whole story is that the two writers, Lima Barreto and “João Barafunda”, struck up a true friendship and were seen as nail and flesh in the bohemian circles of Rio de Janeiro. Regarding the second version, that of the asylum, it also seems to me very unlikely that such a meeting between the two writers took place in that environment, since, as Félix Lima Júnior demonstrated, João Barafunda’s hospitalization took place in 1923, the date on which Lima Barreto had already died.


What is certain is that in the early years of the 1940s the name of Lima Barreto appeared again in the press and there was no lack of stories involving the great novelist in the newspapers. Another stir that arose around the memory of the writer happened after José Lins do Rêgo published, in the 21/04/1943 edition of the newspaper Tomorrow, an article welcoming the possibility of republishing the complete works of Lima Barreto. Recognizing the creator of Polycarp Quaresma As one of the greatest writers we've ever had, José Lins also outlined some characteristics of Lima Barreto and his way of life, saying, among other things, that the writer “lived in taverns drinking cachaça, dirty, like a beggar”.

The following week, also in his newspaper column Tomorrow, José Lins returns to the subject, now to comment on a letter he received from the architect José Mariano Filho, who knew and lived with Lima Barreto for a long time. Let’s see an excerpt: “José Mariano Filho wrote me a letter that I transcribe below to challenge my notes published here in Tomorrow, last Wednesday, about the great Lima Barreto. José Mariano, who was a friend of the novelist, felt uncomfortable with some expressions I used with reference to facts, which he believes are not an expression of the truth. I record José Mariano's hurt, and as a 'limitist' that I am, I fully agree with what he says about the importance of the novelist. However, I see no reason to hide Lima Barreto's life from the public. If he lived in disgrace, it was more the fault of the world in which he lived and which he wished were different”.

“But let's hear what José Mariano told me to say about his dead friend: “My dear José Lins. I want to congratulate you on the article, but I can't do it without a fair correction. You say at a certain point in your article: 'The member Lima Barreto, the one who lived in taverns drinking cachaça, dirty as a beggar, tells us about his vices, etc.'. The impression you bring of Lima Barreto is entirely false, and it would be the work of sheer perversity if I weren't sure that you heard it from third parties. Lima Barreto had taken a humanities course and thought about becoming an engineer. Circumstances that I don't want to recall, because they were intimately mentioned to me by himself, made him renounce the noble purpose of practicing the profession of engineer. I always saw him in the best houses in the city, Castelões, Café Paris, Colombo and others, drinking as others drank. Nor can it be said that Lima Barreto presented himself in dirty public as a beggar. He had a horror of futile life, and, consequently, of men who dressed in finery. When we became intimate, he said to me: 'For years I hated you because of your top hat, and I only forgave you because you never got to wear spats. And he shouted: Do you know what luck awaits a man who wears spats? The people say in a low voice: he is a diplomat… 'Careless in the way he dressed, it cannot be said that the great artist was dirty or shabby. Deep down, with his unfailing blue clothes bought ready-made on Rua Larga, he supposed he was bigger than the handsome young men who infested the door of Livraria Garnier”.[viii]

José Mariano Filho's intervention clearly shows the willingness of those who lived with Lima Barreto not to let the memory of the writer crystallize in the image of the drunk who lived dirty and drank in the city. It is true that on several occasions Lima himself wrote that he had been too drunk, dirty, wandering around the city and sometimes sleeping in the gutter, literally. But we do not observe in any of these writings the slightest intention of the writer to boast about his drunkenness, quite the contrary. They are texts that suffered, from those who felt very ashamed for having crossed the line and behaved so badly. Drinking was a disease in Lima Barreto's life.[ix]


It was around this time, in the second half of the 1940s, that Francisco de Assis Barbosa began to research and participate in the first editorial works aimed at rescuing the work of the great black novelist. Thanks to his commitment and devotion we had the publication of The life of Lima Barreto (1952) and later the Complete works of Lima Barreto, published by Editora Brasiliense, in 1956. Due to this great work, the name and work of Lima Barreto came out of a limbo of almost three decades.

In the wake of Assis Barbosa's work came other biographies,[X] “semi-biographies”,[xi] besides the existence of fiction books inspired by the writer's life,[xii] theater performances,[xiii] Tales[xiv] and a recent feature film.[xv] And Noronha Santos' observation can be extended to this large and varied production, in which very little of that amusing, good-natured, mocking Lima Barreto appears, the Lima who made his friends happy with his hilarious comments and his always striking presence, that “spirit of such suggestive facets”.

Perhaps there may be a certain exaggeration, but with a grain of truth, the presentation by Lima Barreto that we find in a newspaper from 1916, when the publication, in book form, of Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma: “Knowing that, within a few days, Lima Barreto would publish a book, we went looking for him. In Rio de Janeiro, there is no one who doesn't know him. He lives in all neighborhoods, slums, suburbs, and is seen everywhere. Ask anyone: “Have you seen Lima?” She will immediately answer: “I saw him, in Campo Grande, this morning, playing billiards.” Little lives at home, which only has it to sleep, so that it is a reason for everyone's curiosity to know where, when, he writes and reads. No one disputes his reading, and it is everyone's assumption that he does it on trams, ferries, trains... The street is his element. All of his books, short stories, small writings sum up his love for the street. We looked for him... We went from tavern to tavern, from confectionery to confectionery, and we went to find him in a brasserie on Rua Sete de Setembro”.[xvi]

A hiker by vocation, Lima Barreto made friends wherever he went. He was an anecdotist, faithful to the spirit of the times, which newspapers and magazines reproduced abundantly. It is difficult to know the authorial reliability of all that anecdote attributed to the creator of Clara dos Anjos and that we found scattered in the press, but that does not diminish the trait of his personality that we are dedicating ourselves to. Lots of boutades appeared when the writer was still alive. Let us cite two, of the dozens that exist in the editions of the humorous magazine Don Quixote, created and directed by Bastos Tigre, a great friend of Lima Barreto: “No Garnier” – Do you know? – observes a Cabotino poet; … a book appeared in which my name is mentioned! “I already know what it is,” said Lima Barreto. And, terrible: It's the phone book.”[xvii]

“As the Reception Office prohibited the sale of “beverages by lathe”, he asked the News Gazette ask an official to tell you what that expression means. And he explained: “Bebida à lathe” is a denomination given to the way of selling any drink extracted from the barrel to the glass. – There is, therefore, a remedy – commented Lima Barreto. And he taught: – The customer sucks directly from the barrel!”[xviii]

Even after his death, Lima Barreto's name continued to appear in many reminiscences. not frowning Newspapers in Brazil we even find a kind of 'slang' used by the writer: “Lima Barreto, with that character that was his characteristic, always bohemian, poorly dressed, with an air of permanent revolt, even in moments of the most acute crisis, had a phrase cheerful, a stinging allusion. Well, with a kindness that bordered on humility, Lima – a beautiful talent, so regrettably wasted – couldn't deny it. There was even a circle that knew the exact day of payment of the payroll of retirees from the Ministry of War, which is equivalent to saying 'the moment in which one was qualified'... It was on one of these occasions that, having drained his money, Lima Barreto found himself in the contingency of turning to a friend. – How much do you want? – A “saw”. – What is it? – Why, a silver one. And since then, in a wide circle, silverware was no longer called anything else. Now that the magnificent spirit has faded, we are reminded of that episode, in the face of the ever-increasing lack of change, of which the offal and silverware – the “little saws” – were the exponent”.[xx]

No less curious is the story told by Armando Gonzaga, journalist and theater critic, already in the 1940s: “Episodes that I witnessed or that I was protagonist of many years ago. But how to remember them, if not for the sauté? And that's why I jump to the truly impressive calm of Lima Barreto, the genius novelist, in the face of the most distressing situation in which our beloved city has found itself trapped. It was during the Spanish flu, a calamity that almost killed the population of Rio in just a few days. Some newspapers suspended publication due to lack of staff. In the writing of The news, we were reduced to three people: Narareth Menezes, Napoleão and me. We only gave one page with the news of the catastrophe. The board of the ABI [Brazilian Press Association] was kept in permanent session, having been entrusted by the government with distributing aid to the population. We were part of the board, in addition to João Melo, Dario de Mendonça, Irineu Veloso, Noronha Santos and myself. ABI alone lost twenty or so partners in that scourge. It was at that time that Lima Barreto entered the association and, somewhat curious, but completely calm, asked Noronha Santos and me: – What is going on there, that so many people have died? Of all this I have no document. I only have the memory”.[xx]


I finish this inventory with a story published by the magazine Mask, where Lima Barreto wrote most of his chronicles. More than thirty years had passed since the writer's death and he continued to evoke the most extravagant memories: “At a very young age, Gonzaga [Armando Gonzaga, theater critic and journalist] belonged to the group of intellectuals that included Lima Barreto, Raul Braga, Coelho Cavalcanti, etc. He was mainly a close friend of Lima Barreto. One day, in order not to accompany Lima Barreto to the bar, as he was already well into drinking, Gonzaga dragged him to the Cine Palais. A sentimental film was being shown there, with a popular artist at the time, 1921. Lima Barreto agreed to go, but when he left he was indignant. – But you didn't like it, Lima? - No. The film is of nameless brutality. It has unnecessary and even disgusting scenes. So, the moment the lion devours that woman... Frankly, it's too much! Lima Barreto had started watching the film and at a certain point he had fallen asleep and perhaps dreamed of the scene that now revolted him. There was no lion devouring women on the tape!”

On another occasion, Lima Barreto de Todos os Santos had come and sat down in a tavern near Avenida Central, with some friends. As his feet ached, he asked one of them, Bandeira de Gouveia, to take a ticket and collect 50 milreis for his articles, in the father. The friend complained that he had one foot in a slipper and a hole in the shoe: he couldn't go downtown! Lima cut the Gordian knot: he took off his own shoes, which the other soon put on, and he stayed there, only in his socks, waiting for the emissary to return. At midnight he still hadn't returned. The bartender threw everyone out on the street and Lima Barreto would still be there waiting for his money and shoes, if he hadn't chosen to go home with his socks on.

Days later, he was in a circle, when the other one passes by: “- Hello, Lima! – Hello, Flag! There was no rancor in the street voice. Friends, however, were outraged: - So you still talk to such a traitor, after the unworthy proceeding he had towards you? And Lima, indulgent, perhaps ironic: – Come on! For do you think I should lose a friend over a few pennies and a pair of shoes?”[xxx]

Whether they are stories, or facts and stories that actually happened, when we research Lima Barreto's life from the point of view of his friends and those who lived with him, we find another emanation of his personality, different, I would even say contrary, to the one charged with of displeasure and bitterness. To the literary persona of novels with an autobiographical accent or texts of intimacy, we can approximate this public persona, radiant with companionship, happy, jokey, sociable.

The image that crystallized in the stigma of the unruly, crazy, ragged, melancholic, drunk, resentful, etc., that back in the 1920s, 30s, 40s..., carries with it a huge load of racism, which was also embedded in the analyses, interpretations , judgments and verdicts that Lima Barreto's work received until at least the 1970s.

The great merit of Francisco de Assis Barbosa was that of having revolted against the grotesque caricature that was forged in the decades following the passage of Lima. However, the great biographer ended up leaving the anecdotist in the shade, the banderillero of improvised jokes, the comrade who made the bohemian circles and newspaper editors happy. It is necessary to insist on this point so that the image of our dear Lima Barreto does not continue to be fostered solely by adjectives that crystallize him in the figure of the sad visionary, the accursed, unruly, melancholic writer etc., etc., etc.

*Alexandre Juliete Rosa Master in Literature from the Institute of Brazilian Studies at USP.


[I] Antonio Noronha Santos. "Preface". Active and passive matching. 1st volume - Complete works of Lima Barreto – Vol. XVI. São Paulo. Editora Brasiliense, 1956, p. 11 – 12.

[ii] Antonio Noronha Santos. Anecdote of Lima Barreto. Dom Casmurro, October 24, 1942, p. 5

[iii] Reference to the memoir The Rio de Janeiro of my time, by Luiz Edmundo.

[iv] Antonio Noronha Santos. Two articles about Lima Barreto. AUTHORS AND BOOKS – Literary Supplement of Tomorrow. Rio de Janeiro, May 23, 1943.

[v] Francisco de Assis Barbosa. The life of Lima Barreto. Rio de Janeiro: Autêntica, 2017, p. 370.

[vi] The only complete study we have on the life of João Barafunda was written by the Alagoan historian Félix Lima Junior. We know, through this work, that “João Francisco Coelho Cavalcanti was born in São Luís do Quitunde, Alagoas, in 1874, and died in Rio de Janeiro, in the National Hospice for the Insane, in 1938. He was a judge in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Novelist, orator, journalist, poet and pamphleteer, known by his pseudonym João Barafunda”. (Felix Lima Jr. João Barafunda. Alagoas: Edition by the author, 1976, p. 24.)

[vii] Helcio Pereira da Silva. Lima Barreto: cursed writer. Rio de Janeiro. Editora Civilização Brasileira, 1981, p. 94.

[viii] José Lins do Rego. Still about Lima Barreto. Tomorrow, April 23, 1943, p. 4.

[ix] Lima Barreto. “My drunkenness and my madness”. In: Hospice Diary / Cemetery of the Living (Organization and notes by Augusto Massi and Murilo M. de Moura). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2017, p. 48-53.

[X] Moses Gicovate. Lima Barreto: a tormented life. São Paulo: Edições Melhoramentos, 1952; Helcio Pereira da Silva. Lima Barreto: cursed writer. Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian Civilization, 1981; Regis de Moraes. Lima Barreto. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1983; Lilia Schwarcz. Lima Barreto: sad visionary🇧🇷 São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2017.

[xi] Joao Antonio. Calvary and porres of the Afonso Henriques de Lima Barreto pendant. Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian Civilization, 1977; Antonio Arnoni Prado. Lima Barreto: a literary autobiography. São Paulo: EDUSP, 2012.

[xii] Aeneas Ferraz. History of Joao Crispin. Rio de Janeiro: Schettino Bookstore, 1922; Luciana Hidalgo. The Walker. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Rocco, 2011.

[xiii] Helcio Pereira da Silva. Lima Barreto: Cursed of All Saints. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Divulgadora Nacional, 1881; Luís Alberto de Abreu. Lima Barreto on the third day. São Paulo: Caliban Editorial, 1996; Luiz Marfuz (Dramaturgy), Fernanda Júlia (Director), Hilton Cobra (acting) – Cia dos Comuns. Bring me the head of Lima Barreto, 2017. Link to watch the monologue:

[xiv] Nei Lopes. "The Oracle". In: In the waters of this bay for a long time. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 2017, pp. 171 – 185.

[xv] Luiz Antonio Pilar (Director). Lima Barreto on the third day. Inspired by the work of Luís Alberto de Abreu. 2019. 1h44 min. It debuted on the national circuit in November 2022.

[xvi] The new book by Lima Barreto. the season, February 18, 1916, p. 01. Link to access the article:

[xvii] Don Quixote, March 06, 1921.

[xviii] Don Quixote, 17 of August of 1921.

[xx] A saw… Newspapers in Brazil, November 26, 1922, p. 06. Link to access the article:

[xx] Memories of Armando Gonzaga. At night, December 3, 1918. Link:

[xxx] Lima stuff. grimace, March 21, 1953, p. 05. Link:

The site the earth is round exists thanks to our readers and supporters. Help us keep this idea going.
Click here and find how

See this link for all articles


  • About artificial ignoranceEugenio Bucci 15/06/2024 By EUGÊNIO BUCCI: Today, ignorance is not an uninhabited house, devoid of ideas, but a building full of disjointed nonsense, a goo of heavy density that occupies every space
  • Franz Kafka, libertarian spiritFranz Kafka, libertarian spirit 13/06/2024 By MICHAEL LÖWY: Notes on the occasion of the centenary of the death of the Czech writer
  • The society of dead historyclassroom similar to the one in usp history 16/06/2024 By ANTONIO SIMPLICIO DE ALMEIDA NETO: The subject of history was inserted into a generic area called Applied Human and Social Sciences and, finally, disappeared into the curricular drain
  • Letter to the presidentSquid 59mk,g 18/06/2024 By FRANCISCO ALVES, JOÃO DOS REIS SILVA JÚNIOR & VALDEMAR SGUISSARDI: “We completely agree with Your Excellency. when he states and reaffirms that 'Education is an investment, not an expense'”
  • A look at the 2024 federal strikelula haddad 20/06/2024 By IAEL DE SOUZA: A few months into government, Lula's electoral fraud was proven, accompanied by his “faithful henchman”, the Minister of Finance, Fernando Haddad
  • Strengthen PROIFESclassroom 54mf 15/06/2024 By GIL VICENTE REIS DE FIGUEIREDO: The attempt to cancel PROIFES and, at the same time, turn a blind eye to the errors of ANDES management is a disservice to the construction of a new representation scenario
  • PEC-65: independence or patrimonialism in the Central Bank?Campos Neto Trojan Horse 17/06/2024 By PEDRO PAULO ZAHLUTH BASTOS: What Roberto Campos Neto proposes is the constitutional amendment of free lunch for the future elite of the Central Bank
  • Chico Buarque, 80 years oldchico 19/06/2024 By ROGÉRIO RUFINO DE OLIVEIRA: The class struggle, universal, is particularized in the refinement of constructive intention, in the tone of proletarian proparoxytones
  • Volodymyr Zelensky's trapstar wars 15/06/2024 By HUGO DIONÍSIO: Whether Zelensky gets his glass full – the US entry into the war – or his glass half full – Europe’s entry into the war – either solution is devastating for our lives
  • The melancholic end of Estadãoabandoned cars 17/06/2024 By JULIAN RODRIGUES: Bad news: the almost sesquicentennial daily newspaper in São Paulo (and the best Brazilian newspaper) is rapidly declining