Coalition presidentialism

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By FERNANDO NOGUEIRA DA COSTA*

The characteristics and differences between Peemedebism and Coalition Presidentialism

Transdisciplinary complexity science refers to an approach across disciplinary boundaries to study complex phenomena in diverse fields of knowledge. It seeks to understand those not fully explained through traditional analysis and isolated disciplinary methods.

Focuses on the study of complex systems, characterized by non-linear interactions, emergence of unpredictable properties and multiple interconnected components. Therefore, it transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries, integrating concepts and methods from different areas, such as physics, biology, computer science, mathematics, economics, social sciences, political sciences, among others.

Instead of analyzing just the components in isolation, this approach highlights the importance of interactions and relationships between them to understand the global behavior of the system. It also incorporates principles of Chaos Theory – such as the progressive departure from initial conditions – and non-linear dynamics to explore apparently unpredictable phenomena.

Extensive use of computational modeling, simulation and analysis of complex networks is common in this approach. This allows you to virtually explore complex systems and test different scenarios.

The emphasis is on their characteristic emergent properties. They arise from interactions between components and cannot be reduced to individual properties. As a result, it explores the adaptation and evolution of complex systems over time, considering the influence of external factors and changes in environmental conditions.

It also addresses globally interconnected problems such as climate change, economic systems, social networks and systemic biology. Recognizes the need for a holistic understanding.

Many real-world phenomena are intrinsically complex and therefore require an integration of methods and perspectives from multiple disciplines for complete understanding. This transdisciplinary approach seeks to capture the essence of complexity.

As the economy is a subsystem of the complex real world, the updated economist must know its other subsystems. It is always interacting, influencing and being influenced by other subsystems.

The real world is characterized by an intricate network of interconnected subsystems. In addition to the economy, some of the main subsystems include natural systems, ecosystems, biodiversity and the environment. Economic activities have significant impacts on these areas, and, in turn, environmental changes affect the economy.

It also encompasses social structures, institutions, cultural values, traditions and human interactions. The economy influences and is influenced by the social and cultural aspects of society.

Politics and governance refer to political systems, government institutions, and decision-making processes. The economy is shaped by government policies, regulations and governance structures. Political economy is its best definition.

It is also strongly influenced by technological progress, which, in feedback, is affected by economic considerations. It encompasses technological advances, innovation and technological development.

Overall, health systems, medical care, medical research and well-being stand out. The economy has a significant impact on public health, and the health status of the population affects the workforce and economic productivity.

It also depends on education to develop the skills and knowledge needed for the workforce. It comprises educational institutions, education systems and access to education.

Its infrastructure comprises the transportation, energy, communication networks and other physical structures that support society and economic activity. The context of international relations involves interactions between nations, international trade, diplomatic agreements and conflicts. The economy plays a key role in international relations and global events affect it in many ways.

Demography is related to population composition, migration, birth rate and aging. Demographic changes have significant economic implications.

Finally, the transdisciplinary knowledge necessary for a well-educated economist – and not just a specialist in one area – includes national security, food security, energy security, etc. These aspects are related to the protection and stability of society.

These subsystems are intertwined, so changes in one of them have significant effects on the others. A transdisciplinary approach is crucial to understanding the complex interactions between these subsystems and developing sustainable solutions in the face of real-world events.

I will give an example regarding the need for a Brazilian economist to understand Political Science to verify the political feasibility of approving each of his government proposals. In Brazilian politics, what are the characteristics and differences between Peemedebism and Coalition Presidentialism?

Both terms are used in the Brazilian political context. They describe certain dynamics and characteristics in the formation of political coalitions and alliances.

The first refers to the role of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), currently called MDB (Brazilian Democratic Movement), in political strategies and coalitions. Commonly, it is allied with the Political Center of the National Congress.

The PMDB/MDB has historically positioned itself as a center party, seeking to build alliances with different political forces, both left and right, at different times. Despite being seen as a government-based party, with broad representation and capable of bringing together different regional interests, when its leader held the vice-presidency, in 2015-2018, he allied himself with the coup to ascend to the presidency of the Republic through a semi-parliamentary coup.

In view of this, the party demonstrated total ideological flexibility. It allowed its members to act across different political spectrums, facilitating the formation of broad coalitions.

Coalition Presidentialism refers to a characteristic of the Brazilian political system. In it, the President of the Republic, upon taking office, needs to build a coalition in the National Congress to guarantee legislative support for his public policies.

The Brazilian party system is very fragmented, with several political parties – none having a majority of deputies or senators – represented in the National Congress. Hence the need for negotiations and alliances for any government base to obtain a majority.

The president, upon taking office, needs to negotiate positions and resources with different parties to form a stable coalition and ensure the necessary support to approve legislative changes. Therefore, coalition Presidentialism results in opportunistic alliance governments, involving different parties with different interests and demands.

Coalition governance is very difficult. Different parties have different agendas. The president needs to balance these interests to maintain political stability.

Both concepts are related. Peemedebism is perceived as a strategy within the context of coalition Presidentialism. The MDB, with its history of broad representation and ability to build alliances, has played a significant role in the formation of coalition governments in Brazil since redemocratization.

The assessment of whether semi-parliamentaryism, in a presidential regime, represents a crisis of democracy is not certain. It depends on different perspectives and contexts.

The presidential system traditionally involves a clear separation of powers between the Executive and the Legislative. However, when there is an imposition of semi-parliamentaryism, it requires greater interaction between these powers, with the president obtaining greater congressional support to govern through appointments to positions.

It is dependent on negotiations and coalitions in Congress to approve legislation and maintain governability. It leads to greater political stability if negotiations and alliances are successful. If there is instability and difficulty in forming coalitions, a political impasse may arise – and the economic measures necessary for the country may not be approved.

*Fernando Nogueira da Costa He is a full professor at the Unicamp Institute of Economics. Author, among other books, of Brazil of banks (EDUSP). [https://amzn.to/3r9xVNh]


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