Armada Revolts (1893-94) and Whip Revolts (1910)

(Pharoux Pier and D. Pedro II Square, current XV de Novembro Square, 1890, Photography by Marc Ferrez/Gilberto Ferrez Collection, IMS Collection). [i]


The massacres that occurred in the Armada and Chibata revolts took the lives of poor people. All those who fight against this state of things are heroines and heroes.

“It had been seventeen years since we had a similar awakening during the day… Yesterday was the same dawn as that other, sad and terrifying one, from 93, that September 7th that was celebrated in a festival of blood, screams, pain, in a horrible tragedy. (…) It has been seventeen years since the formidable threat of a bombing attack fell fascinatingly and horribly upon us” (News Gazette, No. 328, p. 1).

The Armada and Chibata revolts have things in common. In addition to being carried out by sailors, the places most affected in the two revolts were in the central region of the city of Rio de Janeiro: the Pharoux pier; Praia do Peixe Market, XV de Novembro square; commerce and residences close to Santa Luzia beach and Castelo hill.

On the other hand, the Armada revolt was led by Custódio de Melo, a white admiral and minister, while the Chibata revolt was led by João Cândido, a low-ranking black soldier. The admiral's objective was to remove General Floriano Peixoto from the presidency of the republic. João Cândido's demand was that the Brazilian navy no longer use the whip on its soldiers.

The main difference between the two revolts is the amount of horrors that each produced. The Armada revolt began on September 7, 1893, and only ended in March 1894. There were 198 days of attacks on central points in the city. The Chibata revolt lasted only 5 days, it was announced in the early hours of Tuesday, November 22, 1910, and ended on Saturday of the same week.

Bombings of the Armada Revolt

Despite being close to Pharoux Pier, the Market and Santa Casa da Misericórdia, this area of ​​the city center was cheap to live in. Castelo hill was full of popular housing. The area around Santa Luzia beach had the same social profile. These places became known for their large inns, a type of tenement made up of a group of small buildings.

Several families lived in each inn, many of them workers and immigrant workers. The rent varied depending on the size and structural conditions of the unit. On the Castelo hill was the Bastos inn, one of the largest in Rio de Janeiro: “Adding rooms, rooms, dwellings, etc., there would be 148 housing units in this inn” (BENCHIMOL, 1992, p. 190).

(Popular constructions on Castelo hill, 1917,
Photography by Guilherme Santos, IMS Collection).

At first, the bombardments from ships heading towards the coast were not aimed at homes, but at fortresses and barricades. There were the Navy Arsenal and the fortresses of Cobras Island and Villegagnon Island. Resistance to the rebels placed cannons on Pharoux pier and Santa Luzia beach. The shooters stayed at strategic points on Castelo Hill.

On September 7, 1893, the Newspapers in Brazil published, on the first page, the letter from Admiral Custódio de Melo announcing the imminence of the revolt: “Navy officer, Brazilian, citizen of a free homeland, once again I will find myself in the field of revolutionary action to combat the demolishers of the Constitution and restore the regime of law, order and peace” (Newspapers in Brazil, n. 250, p. 1).

Newspapers covered the clashes during the Armada revolt. Most of this material is accessible in the Digital Hemeroteca of the National Library. The newspaper the father published daily information about the bombings. The detailed accounts indicate that the newspaper intended to assure readers that the massacre was actually happening. Below are some of these reports.

September 14, 1893: “A large-caliber bullet, coming from the rebellious squadron, fell on the Bastos inn, located on Castelo hill. Claudina Maria da Conceição, Portuguese, resident in room no. 4. She was walking around the kitchen towards the inside of her house, when she was caught by the bullet that hit the back of her skull, sliding off to the right and leaving her irremediably dead” (the father, n. 4147, p. 1).

September 23, 1893: “A grenade thrown by the (cruiser) soursop, heading towards the Castelo battery, fell in the center of the city, on a house on Rua Uruguaiana, close to Rua Sete de Setembro. One of the pieces of shrapnel from that grenade hit a Vila Isabel tram, pierced the car's roof, broke two of its seats and instantly killed Dr. José Lomelino Drummond, another fell a little further away, on Rua Sete de Setembro, almost upon reaching Travessa de São Francisco, also instantly killing Maria Cândida Borges, who was passing by, accompanied by two younger children, a third piece of shrapnel seriously injured one leg to Miguel Gomes Peres, a worker at the Arsenal de Guerra” (the father, n. 4156, p. 1).

September 26, 1893: “In Largo do Rossio, a grenade exploded in front of the Club Naval, killing a poor old newspaper seller. (…) On Lavradio Street, n. 43, there lived an Italian woman, Josefina so-and-so, a dancer from the opera company, as far as we know, a bullet penetrating the back of the house detonated and one of the shrapnel penetrated the unfortunate woman's right breast, who was found dying. Dr.'s house Correia Dutra, on the street of the same name, in Castelo, was reached by a projectile from the towers of the (battleship) Aquidaba. The bullet penetrated the adjacent building, destroyed four walls, and fortunately did not explode; but the collapse of the walls still injured two children, Jacinto de Moraes, 10 years old, and Nicanor, 7, children of Dutra's servants, whose family was away. (…) A shrapnel coming from the police station exploded in a house in Castelo square, roofing the building and causing great damage to it. (…) The fragments of the shrapnel were thrown at the front house and then, breaking through the walls and penetrating through the windows, they sent the residents who were having dinner into a stampede. José Ávila de Azevedo, Portuguese, single, 22 years old and who was a customs carpenter, who was at that time in the backyard of the same house, was hit by a piece of shrapnel, which caused a severe wound in his neck, and was immediately transported by Seminary slope for the police. When he was halfway down the hill, the unfortunate young man died” (the father, n. 4159, p. 1).

September 27, 1893: “A grenade exploded on Rua da Candelária, between the Banco da República do Brasil and Messrs. John Moore & C., with shrapnel embedded in the walls of neighboring buildings. One of the pieces of shrapnel entered through the window of the two-story building next to yours. Moore & C. and instantly killed Mr. Lary I. Watmough, employee of the London & Brasilian Bank, who was having lunch at the Leão de Ouro hotel, established there. The shrapnel penetrated a temple, destroying a large part of the jaws. The deceased, of English nationality, appeared to be in his early 20s” (the father, n. 4160, p. 1).

September 28, 1893: “Niterói, 27 – O Aquidaba and a refrigerator (ship), around 3 o'clock in the afternoon, without aggression that would justify the violence of the response, dropped bombs on the city. One of these projectiles killed an artist-typist, an 18-year-old boy, supported by his widowed mother, and a 13-year-old boy, also the widow's son. The two were talking in the front room of the house where they lived, on Rua Marechal Deodoro, at the time of the bombing” (the father, n. 4161, p. 1).

October 20, 1893: “In yesterday's bombing, the following died: a 19-year-old boy, a sales clerk, who was on Rua Aureliana, corner of Rua da Praia; a child and a student from the polytechnic school, a member of the academic battalion, called Fernandes Pinheiro, nephew of the treasurer of the Banco do Brasil and son, I believe, of the judge of the same name. This poor young man died from a shrapnel from a grenade, on Rua da Glória, on the corner of Rua Visconde de Uruguai” (the father, n. 4183, p. 1).

October 23, 1893: “We heard, at night, of another great misfortune in Niterói, at Rua José Bonifácio, n. 10. (…) d. Emília Luiza Garrido Penido, widow of Dr. Jerônimo Máximo Nogueira Penido, died immediately, and d. Mathilde Teixeira de Carvalho, a 2nd year student at a normal school in the State of Rio de Janeiro, aged 24, received a fracture of her tibia” (the father, n. 4186, p. 1).

October 24, 1893: “Another child dyeing with his innocent blood the trophies of glory of Mr. Custodio José de Melo. When, at 9 o'clock the night before last, a boat belonging to the rebels skirted the beach of Santa Luzia, criminally and unnecessarily setting fire to land, the youngest João de Souza, 12 years old, an orphan, lovingly raised from a young age by a lady resident in house no. 4 on that beach, he was hit in the epigastric region by a machine gun bullet, which killed him almost instantly. He barely had time to be transported to the 12th ward of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia hospital” (the father, n. 4187, p. 1).

November 6, 1893: “The violence of the rebels against the working population of the city of Rio de Janeiro began very early yesterday. It was 5 ½ in the morning; The Market Square ramp was packed with people – men, women and children, in that daily, hectic movement, jostling together and amidst the peaceful din of merchants and auctioneers from fishing and small farming. The people thus distracted did not see the approach of a boat from the squadron that called itself liberator, and continued their work of acquiring food. Speedboat era Glory, whose garrison could not contain itself when they saw so many people together and fired rifle fire towards the land. The force stationed in Largo do Paço did not respond to the provocation, in order to avoid a fight, in which the people gathered there would be sacrificed; but even so, a poor Italian, a traveling fish merchant, received a projectile in the muscles of one of his arms, leaving his flesh torn apart” (the father, n. 4200, p. 1).

November 7, 1893: “Right after the first shots, a little child was seriously injured, who was playing on the steps of inn no. 8, on the slopes of the Castle. His name is Nicolau, he is 6 years old, he is the son of Mariana Alves Correia dos Santos, who lives in building no. 10. The projectile hit his foot against the rocks, so that his bones were crushed, making amputation necessary. (…) In Largo da Carioca, a student from the normal school, daughter of José Rego, sectional inspector of Gávea, standing next to the door of warehouse no. 3, she received a bullet that went through her stomach; Her condition is serious” (the father, n. 4201, p. 1).

November 15, 1893: “Hidden behind the fountain in Praça In one of these careers, he was recklessly hit by a rifle bullet that, entering through the right frontal boss, exited through the occiput. The brain mass began to spill immediately, and the unfortunate man still breathed until 7 o'clock at night, in the War Arsenal, where he was collected” (the father, n. 4209, p. 1).

December 2, 1893: “Yesterday, at 4:15 in the afternoon, the youngest Antônio Conceição, who had been left the day before with his intestines torn apart by the shrapnel of a grenade that exploded in Praça das Marinhas, passed away” (the father, n. 4226, p. 1).

December 12, 1893: “At 6:13 pm yesterday, the shrapnel of one of the grenades intermittently fired from the island of Cobras reached the 8-year-old minor, Heredia de Oliveira Campos, who was passing through the Carceler (boulervard). The unfortunate man, who is an employee at warehouse no. XNUMX Dom Manoel Street, dispatch a small sheet trunk at the Companhia de São Cristóvão freight station; The shrapnel fractured his skull, almost completely lifting the shell. The little bastard didn't scream. With his eyes bulging out of his head, he fell to the ground, which was flooded with innocent blood. Transported to the Silva Araújo pharmacy, he expired moments later” (the father, n. 4236, p. 1).

January 4, 1894: “The squadron's hostilities against the city and its peaceful population did not conclude yesterday without a bloody note. (…) Brazilian citizen João Gonçalves da Cruz, 27 years old, resident of Ladeira do Castelo, n. 8. The unfortunate man was hit by a revolver cannonball, which went through one of his eyes, going through his skull” (the father, n. 4259, p. 1).

January 8, 1894: “At 9 o'clock yesterday morning, the unfortunate Joanna Serenmeyer expired, injured the day before by a grenade that exploded outside the window of her residence. Another bloody body lowered into the grave! I mourn for five children, whose beloved mother was stolen forever by the rebels” (the father, n. 4263, p. 1).

January 20, 1894: “On the occasion of the shooting the day before yesterday at the Pharoux pier, the Portuguese subject Antônio Joaquim Gomes, 33 years old, who was passing by, was hit by a bullet and immediately killed. He was married and lived at Rua Visconde de Sapucaí, n. 194” (the father, n. 4275, p. 1).

Bombings of the Revolt of the Whip

A year before the La Chibata revolt, the press gave great coverage to the crime that became known as the Blood Spring. On September 22, 1909, in a demonstration for the arrival of spring, students took to the city's streets. The march ended at Largo São Francisco de Paula, where university students José de Araújo Guimarães, 17, and Francisco Ribeiro Junqueira, 19, were murdered by plainclothes police officers (News Gazette, n. 277, p. 2).

(Two dead students, 1909, Mask, n. 69, p. 28).

The police officers held responsible for the crime were subordinates of General Souza Aguiar, commander of the Federal District Police Force (BORGES, 2011).

With the public gallery of the congress full of students, journalist and senator Antônio Azeredo took the floor: “During Floriano's time, even deputies were attacked by military personnel. During Prudente de Moraes' time, disguised soldiers booed deputies, one of whom, Mr. Adalberto Ferraz, was seriously injured. Still this year, in January, we had the case of the Light bonds, in which the same General Aguiar, personally commanding his soldiers, ordered the people to be swords. All these crimes went unpunished” (News Gazette, n. 267, p. 2).

A few weeks later, jurist, journalist and senator Rui Barbosa agreed to run in the presidential election against Marshal Hermes da Fonseca. In his first speech as a candidate, the senator defended a civilist campaign as a counterpoint to his opponent's militaristic campaign (News Gazette, n. 277, p. 2).

On March 2, 1910, the day after the election, it was already known that the military candidate had won by a large majority. Rui Barbosa questioned the suitability of the electoral process. In the city of Rio de Janeiro, violent conflicts occurred between hermists and civilists (Newspapers in Brazil, n. 61, p. 4).

On November 15, Hermes da Fonseca assumed the presidency. On November 22, the Chibata revolt broke out. According to João Cândido's testimony, the trigger for the revolt was the punishment of 250 lashes in Praça Marcelino Rodrigues, by order of João Baptista das Neves, commander of the battleship. Minas Geraes (MOREL, 1963).

On the first day of the revolt, sea and war captain Baptista das Neves was murdered by the mutinous crew (Correio da Manhã, n. 3416). The navy and a large part of the press began to treat him as a hero.

The newspapers vehemently criticized the sailors who threatened the population with a powerful fleet. Once again, the central region was the most vulnerable in the city.

A few days after the start of the revolt, former sailor Eurico Fogo went to the newspaper's offices The state of Sao Paulo explain the cruelties of Baptista das Neves:

“Commander Neves, the 'Crooked Bone', as all the sailors called him, was a fearsome man. Master Alípio, executor of his orders, is the greatest executioner that the fleet has, by order of him he 'blunts the needle thread', soaking it overnight so that the next morning he can give it, generally, 1000 blows, at least, in the soldiers subject to punishment. (…) The master took a medium-sized linen rope, crossed it with steel needles, the most resistant, and, to swell the rope, soaked it, so that only the tips of the needles appeared. In the morning, the garrison formed. The offending sailor came in handcuffs. They removed the handcuffs from his hands and suspended him, completely naked, on the 'sheep's foot' (an iron that is attached to the ship's railing), and then Master Alípio, the inhumane, applied 1000 blows with the rope.” (The state of Sao Paulo, n. 11671, p. 4; the father, n. 9549, p. 2).

On the second day of the revolt, the newspapers reported the shocking story of two victims: “In the morning, at the Bastos Inn, on Morro do Castelo, D. Maria Monteiro Leal was bathing her two little children, Ernani and Ricardina, the latter 2 years old, the other 4, when a grenade exploded near the group, coming from on board the ship. Minas Geraes. The fragments of the projectile hit the mother and children: the woman was slightly injured in the arm; Ernani died immediately and Ricardina, seriously injured, was transported to the Santa Casa da Misericórdia hospital, where she died shortly after entering” (News Gazette, n. 328, p. 2).

O Correio da Manhã described the moment of the bombing that hit the community: “Shortly after nine o’clock, the Minas Geraes he made an unexpected maneuver, as if trying to get around the island of Villegagnon. When it was closer to that island, the powerful battleship fired three shots in a row, two of which were on it, and one from elevation. The last of these three grenades climbed over the neighborhoods of Glória and Lapa, landing on Castelo hill, in a small workers' village, known there as Estalagem do Bastos. The grenade fell on the small house occupied by Mr. Horácio Baptista Leal, which was made up of his wife and two minor children, named Ernani and Ricardina” (Correio da Manhã, n. 3416, p. 2).

(Two dead children, 1910. Mask, n. 130, p. 27).

In addition to other injured people, a third person lost his life: “A grenade shrapnel killed Maria Rosa Madureira, Portuguese, widow, 52 years old, resident at Rua Monte, n. 34, in Health” (the father, n. 9546, p. 4).

The image of the two dead children on Castelo Hill appeared on the cover of most newspapers and magazines at the time. On a note, the father reports that Horácio Baptista Leal, civil guard and father of the children, went to ask President Hermes da Fonseca for resources for the burial (the father, n. 9547, p, 2).

The death of the children also shook the sailors. In the words of João Cândido: “It was a disgrace! From the miserable salary we received, we got two hundred thousand réis and sent it to the family to bury the boys” (MOREL, 1963, p. 62). At the end of the revolt, João Cândido went looking for them on Castelo Hill (PAIXÃO, 2008). Certainly, these horrific deaths helped to shorten the Chibata revolt.

Congress approved an amnesty project for the insurgents. Sanctioned by the president, decree no. 2280, of November 25, 1910, does not mention the punishment of the whip (Correio da Manhã, n. 3419). João Candido received this news with indignation, even so, he finally accepted the revolt (Newspapers in Brazil, no. 331).

Despite the amnesty, the president signed decree no. 8400, of November 28, 1910, which authorized: “the dismissal, by exclusion, of enlisted personnel from the National Sailors Corps whose stay would be inconvenient to discipline” (Newspapers in Brazil, no. 333).

On December 9, a revolt occurs on Cobras Island (News Gazette, n. 344). The insurgent sailors were mercilessly massacred by government forces (MOREL, 1963). This revolt was what Hermes da Fonseca needed to approve the state of siege in congress (News Gazette, no. 346).

In a statement made in 1968, João Cândido states that this second revolt was faked by the government to suspend the amnesty (BARBOSA, 1999). On December 10, accused of also leading this revolt, João Cândido was arrested.

In the Site Pages section, published in January 1911, the News Gazette denounced the arbitrary actions promoted by the government. On January 13, the newspaper reported the conditions of the prison where João Cândido was taken:

“The infernal heat of an environment closed on all sides and the pestilential atmosphere, breathed from mouth to mouth by the unfortunate sailors, soon generated thirst. They demanded water and no one wanted to listen to them. (…) Finally, the first victim fell. Starvation had killed her. (…) There was a moment of uproar in the dungeon, the prisoners forced the sturdy bars. They poured several bags of lime over it. (…) Death claimed new victims, and after three days, eighteen burials left Cobras Island for the Caju Cemetery” (News Gazette, no. 3466).

In December 1910, hundreds of insurgent sailors who were already imprisoned were sent to the Amazon jungle, sharing the hold of the ship Satellite with criminals (MOREL, 1963). During the trip, many were shot. On January 12, 1911, with the arrival of Satellite to one of your destinations, the Correio da Manhã echoed a magazine report North-Brazilian Commerce criticizing the federal government for deporting rioters from Rio de Janeiro to Acre (n. 3484, p. 3).

In the heated section of the congress on September 26, 1912, when defending the freedom of João Cândido, deputy Irineu Machado created an expression that became famous: “I believe more in the loyalty of the black admiral than in the loyalty of the white soldier, in that of the very white marshal. ..." (Correio da Manhã, n. 4088, p. 2).

After two years imprisoned on Cobras Island, João Cândido and the other sailors were tried by the war council for their alleged participation in the second revolt. On December 2, 1912, they were acquitted: “Considering, finally, that there is no evidence in the records that the defendants have carried out any act that, authorizing the suspicion of participation in the aforementioned revolt, (…) unanimously judges the accusation has not been proven” (Correio da Manhã, n. 5054, p. 2).

Almost a month later, on December 31st, João Cândido and the other sailors were released (Correio da Manhã, n. 5083). That same day, they went to tell their stories at the Correio da Manhã and News Gazette. [ii]

Final notes

Originally published as a serial, between August 11 and October 19, 1911,[iii] the book Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma, by Lima Barreto, takes place during the period of the Armada revolt. However, as the poets of Greek tragedy did, the writer seems to evoke in the novel more current issues of political debate.

As a writer and journalist, Lima Barreto closely followed the Chibata revolt. Additionally, he was part of the sentencing board that sentenced the police officers involved in the Blood Spring (Correio da Manhã, no. 3347).

According to the fine analyzes of Edgar Decca (1998), Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma can be taken as a paradigmatic narrative of the massacres perpetrated by a militarized republic.

Even referring to the characters of the Armada revolt, a passage in the novel describes abuses of power similar to those faced by João Cândido and his companions in the Chibata revolt:

“The slightest criticism was enough to lose your job, your freedom, – who knows? – life too. The police chief had organized the list of suspects. (…) In the name of Marshal Floriano, any officer, or even citizen, without any public function, arrested and woe betide whoever fell into prison, there he was forgotten, suffering anguished torments of a Dominican imagination” (BARRETO, 2017, p. 125 ).

The Rio de Janeiro that faced the Armada and La Chibata revolts no longer exists. Following the Hausmmannian guidelines of expulsion of poor populations from the centers of large cities, in 1922, Mayor Carlos Sampaio dismantled the Castelo hill. In a chronicle published in the magazine Mask, Lima Barreto argued: “There are no houses, however we want to raze the Castelo hill, taking away the homes of a few thousand people” (1920, p. 37).[iv]

In common, the massacres that occurred in the Armada and Chibata revolts took the lives of poor people. All those who fight against this state of things are heroines and heroes.

Appendix. The Naked River, No. 1291, p. two.

* Paulo Fernandes Silveira Professor at the Faculty of Education at USP and researcher at the Human Rights Group at the Institute for Advanced Studies at USP.

References – images

Pharoux Pier and D. Pedro II Square, currently XV de Novembro Square. (1890). Photography by Marc Ferrez/Gilberto Ferrez Collection. Moreira Salles Institute Collection (IMS). Available in:

Popular buildings in Morro do Castelo. (1917). Photography by Guilherme Santos. Moreira Salles Institute Collection (IMS). Available in:

References – newspapers and magazines

grimace, September 25, 1909, n. 69. Available at:

grimace, November 26, 1910, n. 130. Available at:

Morning mail, December 16, 1910, n. 3347. Available at:

Morning mail, November 24, 1910, n. 3416. Available at:

Morning mail, November 27, 1910, n. 3419. Available at:

Morning mail, January 12, 1911, n. 3484. Available at:

Morning mail, September 27, 1912, n. 4088. Available at:

Correio da Manhã, December 2, 1912, n. 5054. Available at:

Correio da Manhã, December 31, 1912, n. 5083. Available at:

Morning mail, October 5, 1951, n. 17959. Available at:

Morning mail, March 28, 1968, n. 22999. Available at:

News Gazette, September 24, 1909, n. 267. Available at:

News Gazette, October 4, 1909, n. 277. Available at:

News Gazette, November 24, 1910, n. 328. Available at:

News Gazette, December 12, 1910, n. 346. Available at:

News Gazette, January 13, 1911, n. 3466. Available at:

Jornal do Commercio – Afternoon Edition, August 11, 1911. Available at:

Newspapers in Brazil, September 7, 1893, n. 250. Available at:

Newspapers in Brazil, March 2, 1910, n. 61. Available at:

Newspapers in Brazil, November 27, 1910, n. 331. Available at:

Newspapers in Brazil, November 29, 1910, n. 333. Available at:

The state of Sao Paulo, November 26, 1910, n. 11671. Available at:!/19101126-11671-nac-0004-999-4-not

the father, September 14, 1893, n. 4147. Available at:

the father, September 23, 1893, n. 4156. Available at:

the father, September 26, 1893, n. 4159. Available at:

the father, September 27, 1893, n. 4160. Available at:

the father, September 28, 1893, n. 4161. Available at:

the father, October 20, 1893, n. 4183. Available at:

the father, October 23, 1893, n. 4186. Available at:

the father, September 24, 1893, n. 4187. Available at:

the father, November 6, 1893, n. 4200. Available at:

the father, November 7, 1893, n. 4201. Available at:

the father, November 15, 1893, n. 4209. Available at:

the father, December 2, 1893, n. 4226. Available at:

the father, December 12, 1893, n. 4236. Available at:

the father, January 4, 1894, n. 4259. Available at:

the father, January 8, 1894, n. 4263. Available at:

the father, January 20, 1894, n. 42753. Available at:

the father, November 24, 1910, n. 9546. Available at:

the father, November 25, 1910, n. 9547. Available at:

the father, November 27, 1910, n. 9549. Available at:

The Naked River, November 30, 1910, n. 1291. Available at:


BARBOSA, Marília (Org.). (1999). João Cândido, the Black Admiral. Rio de Janeiro: Gryphus. João Cândido's statement to the Museum of Image and Sound (MIS) is available at:

BARRETO, Lima. (1920). Megalomania, Mask, August 28, 1920, p. 37. Available at:

BARRETO, Lima. (2017). Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma. Brasília: Chamber of Deputies, Chamber Editions. Available in:

BENCHIMOL, Jaime. (1992). Pereira Passos: a tropical Haussmann. Rio de Janeiro: Municipal Secretariat of Culture, Tourism and Sports/ Publishing Division.

BORGES, Vera. (2011). The spring of blood: the city of Rio de Janeiro in the electoral battle of 1910. Dimensions, v. 27, p. 115-128. Available in: file:///C:/Users/Usuario/Downloads/lucasbraga,+d27_07_veraluciabogeaborges.pdf

DECCA, Edgar. (1998). Quaresma: an account of republican massacre, Years 90, v. 5, n.8, p. 45-62. Available in:

MOREL, Edmar. (1963). The Revolt of the Whip. Guanabara: Editora Letras e Artes.

PASSION, Claudia. (2008). Rio de Janeiro and Castelo Hill: popular, life strategies and social hierarchies (1904-1922). Dissertation (Master’s in Urban Social History). Fluminense Federal University, Niterói. Available in:


[I] The copy of the original photo by Marc Ferrez was cropped by the author of this essay to make it easier to see Morro do Castelo. You can access the full image on the Instituto Moreira Salles website. I thank researcher Roberta Mociaro Zanatta for the information about the IMS collection.

[ii] Hemeroteca Digital does not have the edition of News Gazette on December 31, 1912. However, an image of the cover of this edition of the newspaper is available at:

[iii] The first serial of the Sad end of Policarpo Quaresma was published on August 11, 1911, issue no. 560 of Journal of Commerce. The Hemeroteca Digital only has the editions from August 1911.

[iv] The material from Morro do Castelo was used in several landfills in the region. Santa Luzia beach disappeared, as did the Calabouço, a building on the seafront where a public institution used to imprison and punish slaves was located. Opened in 1951, close to the place where the floggings took place, the university restaurant managed by the Metropolitan Student Union (UME) became known as Calabouço (Correio da Manhã, n. 17959, p. 5). On March 28, 1968, when repressing a student protest against the hygiene conditions and quality of food in the restaurant, the military police murdered high school student Edson Luís Lima Souto (Correio da Manhã, n. 22999, p. 1).

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